"Aristocratic wealth and inequality in a changing society: Sweden, 1750–1900." Scandinavian Journal of History 44.1 (2019): 27–52.


Before 1789, aristocracies were typically closely associated with the church, especially the Catholic Church, but in the 19th century wave after wave of attacks on the Catholics weakened that element of the aristocratic coalition.


The French Revolution in the 1790s forced many aristocrats into exile, relieving them of their lands and power.


After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, however, the exiles returned but they never recovered all their lands and never wielded as much political power.


However, after the 1830s, in country after country, the aristocracies tended to lose their historic dominance over wealth and political power.


As late as 1900, aristocrats maintained political dominance in Britain, Germany, Austria and Russia, but it was more precarious.

After 1900, Liberal and socialist governments levied heavy taxes on landowners, spelling their loss of economic power. ==See also== Elitism Gentry Nobility Old money Timocracy Tyranny ==References== ==Further reading== Bengtsson, Erik, et al.


History, Oxford University Press, 1997, Liu, Jia.


Aristocracy in the Modern World, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Ancient Greek government Oligarchy Social classes Social groups


Women, Rank, and Marriage in the British Aristocracy, 1485-2000: An Open Elite? (Springer, 2014). Wasson, Ellis.


"Study on the Decline of the British Aristocracy from the Perspective of Modernization." 2018 4th International Conference on Economics, Management and Humanities Science (2018).

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