It is named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir, who predicted the effect for electromagnetic systems in 1948. In the same year, Casimir together with Dirk Polder described a similar effect experienced by a neutral atom in the vicinity of a macroscopic interface which is referred to as Casimir–Polder force.
After a conversation with Niels Bohr, who suggested it had something to do with zero-point energy, Casimir alone formulated the theory predicting a force between neutral conducting plates in 1948.
Jiang at Stockholm University and Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek at MIT show that chiral "lubricant" can generate repulsive, enhanced, and tunable Casimir interactions. Timothy Boyer showed in his work published in 1968 that a conductor with spherical symmetry will also show this repulsive force, and the result is independent of radius.
Dealing with infinite quantities in this way was a cause of widespread unease among quantum field theorists before the development in the 1970s of the renormalization group, a mathematical formalism for scale transformations that provides a natural basis for the process. When the scope of the physics is widened to include gravity, the interpretation of this formally infinite quantity remains problematic.
This reaction was predicted by certain numerical solutions to quantum mechanics equations made in the 1970s.
In 1978, Schwinger, DeRadd, and Milton published a similar derivation for the Casimir effect between two parallel plates. == Effects == Casimir's observation was that the second-quantized quantum electromagnetic field, in the presence of bulk bodies such as metals or dielectrics, must obey the same boundary conditions that the classical electromagnetic field must obey.
Since the fundamental principles leading to the London–van der Waals force, the Casimir and the Casimir–Polder force, respectively, can be formulated on the same footing, the distinction in nomenclature nowadays serves a historical purpose mostly and usually refers to the different physical setups. It was not until 1997 that a direct experiment by S.
Experiments before 1997 had observed the force qualitatively, and indirect validation of the predicted Casimir energy had been made by measuring the thickness of liquid helium films.
However, it was not until 1997 that a direct experiment by S.
Lambrecht, The Casimir effect: a force from nothing, Physics World, September 2002. === Papers, books and lectures === (Includes discussion of French naval analogy.) (Also includes discussion of French naval analogy.) Patent No.
Lang, The Casimir Force web site, 2002 J.
Babb, bibliography on the Casimir Effect web site, 2009 Quantum field theory Physical phenomena Force Levitation Faster-than-light travel Articles containing video clips
In May 2011 an announcement was made by researchers at the Chalmers University of Technology, in Gothenburg, Sweden, of the detection of the dynamical Casimir effect.
If confirmed this would be the first experimental verification of the dynamical Casimir effect. In March 2013 an article appeared on the PNAS scientific journal describing an experiment that demonstrated the dynamical Casimir effect in a Josephson metamaterial.
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