Chinese calendar


The traditional Japanese calendar also derived from the Chinese calendar (based on a Japanese meridian), but its official use in Japan was abolished in 1873 as part of reforms after the Meiji Restoration.


Liu Shipei (劉師培, 1884–1919) created the Yellow Emperor Calendar, with year 1 as the birth of the emperor (which he determined as 2711 BC, implying that is AD).


Gao Pingzi (; 1888–1970), a Chinese astronomer who co-founded the Purple Mountain Observatory, proposed that month numbers be calculated before the new moon and solar terms be rounded to the day.


Liu calculated that the 1900 international expedition sent by the Eight-Nation Alliance to suppress the Boxer Rebellion entered Beijing in the 4611th year of the Yellow Emperor. === Chinese New Year === The date of the Chinese New Year accords with the patterns of the solar calendar and hence is variable from year to year.


Modern Chinese chronology has generally accepted Martini's dates, except that it usually places the reign of the Yellow Emperor at 2698 BC and omits his predecessors Fuxi and Shennong as "too legendary to include". Publications began using the estimated birth date of the Yellow Emperor as the first year of the Han calendar in 1903, with newspapers and magazines proposing different dates.


The province of Jiangsu counted 1905 as the year 4396 (using a year 1 of 2491 BC, and implying that is AD), and the newspaper Ming Pao () reckoned 1905 as 4603 (using a year 1 of 2698 BC, and implying that is AD).


Some calendars followed the last calendar of the Qing dynasty, published in 1908.

The first recorded reign title was Jiànyuán (), from 140 BC; the last reign title was Xuāntǒng (), from AD 1908.


The era system was abolished in 1912, after which the current or Republican era was used. =====Stem-branches===== The 60 stem-branches have been used to mark the date since the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BC).

The most popular is the Gregorian calendar (). On 2 January 1912, Sun Yat-sen announced changes to the official calendar and era.


If a leap month falls after month 11—as it will in 2033—the 11th month will be Shíèryuè (), and the leap month will be Làyuè. Years were traditionally numbered by the reign in ancient China, but this was abolished after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949.


The first new moon in 1968 was at 16:29 UTC on 29 January.


This caused confusion about the date of the 1978 Mid-Autumn Festival, and those areas then switched to the UTC+8-based calendar. ==== Shíxiàn calendar ==== During the late Ming dynasty, Xu Guangqi and his colleagues worked out a new calendar based on Western astronomical arithmetic; however, the new calendar was not released before the end of the dynasty.


For example, the year from 8 February 2016 to 27 January 2017 was a Bǐngshēn year () of . During the Tang dynasty, the Earthly Branches were used to mark the months from December 761 to May 762.


In China it is defined by the Chinese national standard GB/T 33661–2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on May 12, 2017. Although modern-day China uses the Gregorian calendar, the traditional Chinese calendar governs holidays—such as the Chinese New Year and Lantern Festival—in both China and in overseas Chinese communities.

In 2017, the intercalary month after month six was called Rùn Liùyuè, or "intercalary sixth month" () and written as 6i or 6+.

For example, the year from 8 February 2016 to 27 January 2017 was a Bǐngshēn year () of . During the Tang dynasty, the Earthly Branches were used to mark the months from December 761 to May 762.


The next intercalary month (in 2020, after month four) will be called Rùn Sìyuè () and written 4i or 4+. ===Lunisolar year=== The lunisolar year begins with the first spring month, Zhēngyuè (), and ends with the last winter month, Làyuè ().

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Page generated on 2021-08-05