Davy further claimed that elements that were then believed to be gases, such as nitrogen and [could be liquefied under the right conditions and would then behave as metals. In 1823, Michael Faraday, then an assistant in Davy's lab, successfully liquefied chlorine and went on to liquefy all known gaseous elements, except for nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Shortly after, in 1869, Irish chemist Thomas Andrews studied the phase transition from a liquid to a gas and coined the term critical point to describe the condition where a gas and a liquid were indistinguishable as phases, and Dutch physicist Johannes van der Waals supplied the theoretical framework which allowed the prediction of critical behavior based on measurements at much higher temperatures.

Band structure calculations was first used in 1930 to predict the properties of new materials, and in 1947 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley developed the first semiconductor-based transistor, heralding a revolution in electronics. In 1879, Edwin Herbert Hall working at the Johns Hopkins University discovered a voltage developed across conductors transverse to an electric current in the conductor and magnetic field perpendicular to the current.

By 1908, James Dewar and Heike Kamerlingh Onnes were successfully able to liquefy hydrogen and then newly discovered helium, respectively. Paul Drude in 1900 proposed the first theoretical model for a classical electron moving through a metallic solid.

The first theoretical description of metals was given by Paul Drude in 1900 with the Drude model, which explained electrical and thermal properties by describing a metal as an ideal gas of then-newly discovered electrons.

In 1906, Pierre Weiss introduced the concept of magnetic domains to explain the main properties of ferromagnets.

By 1908, James Dewar and Heike Kamerlingh Onnes were successfully able to liquefy hydrogen and then newly discovered helium, respectively. Paul Drude in 1900 proposed the first theoretical model for a classical electron moving through a metallic solid.

In 1912, The structure of crystalline solids was studied by Max von Laue and Paul Knipping, when they observed the X-ray diffraction pattern of crystals, and concluded that crystals get their structure from periodic lattices of atoms.

The Thomas–Fermi theory, developed in the 1920s, was used to estimate system energy and electronic density by treating the local electron density as a variational parameter.

Albert Einstein, in 1922, said regarding contemporary theories of superconductivity that "with our far-reaching ignorance of the quantum mechanics of composite systems we are very far from being able to compose a theory out of these vague ideas." ===Advent of quantum mechanics=== Drude's classical model was augmented by Wolfgang Pauli, Arnold Sommerfeld, Felix Bloch and other physicists.

Using this idea, he developed the theory of paramagnetism in 1926.

In 1928, Swiss physicist Felix Bloch provided a wave function solution to the Schrödinger equation with a periodic potential, known as Bloch's theorem. Calculating electronic properties of metals by solving the many-body wavefunction is often computationally hard, and hence, approximation methods are needed to obtain meaningful predictions.

Band structure calculations was first used in 1930 to predict the properties of new materials, and in 1947 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley developed the first semiconductor-based transistor, heralding a revolution in electronics. In 1879, Edwin Herbert Hall working at the Johns Hopkins University discovered a voltage developed across conductors transverse to an electric current in the conductor and magnetic field perpendicular to the current.

After the advent of quantum mechanics, Lev Landau in 1930 developed the theory of Landau quantization and laid the foundation for the theoretical explanation for the quantum Hall effect discovered half a century later. Magnetism as a property of matter has been known in China since 4000 BC.

Further research such as by Bloch on spin waves and Néel on antiferromagnetism led to developing new magnetic materials with applications to magnetic storage devices. ===Modern many-body physics=== The Sommerfeld model and spin models for ferromagnetism illustrated the successful application of quantum mechanics to condensed matter problems in the 1930s.

Later in the 1930s, Douglas Hartree, Vladimir Fock and John Slater developed the so-called Hartree–Fock wavefunction as an improvement over the Thomas–Fermi model.

The mathematics of crystal structures developed by Auguste Bravais, Yevgraf Fyodorov and others was used to classify crystals by their symmetry group, and tables of crystal structures were the basis for the series International Tables of Crystallography, first published in 1935.

The theoretical physics of condensed matter shares important concepts and methods with that of particle physics and nuclear physics. A variety of topics in physics such as crystallography, metallurgy, elasticity, magnetism, etc., were treated as distinct areas until the 1940s, when they were grouped together as solid state physics.

For example, in the introduction to his 1947 book Kinetic Theory of Liquids, Yakov Frenkel proposed that "The kinetic theory of liquids must accordingly be developed as a generalization and extension of the kinetic theory of solid bodies.

Band structure calculations was first used in 1930 to predict the properties of new materials, and in 1947 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley developed the first semiconductor-based transistor, heralding a revolution in electronics. In 1879, Edwin Herbert Hall working at the Johns Hopkins University discovered a voltage developed across conductors transverse to an electric current in the conductor and magnetic field perpendicular to the current.

Eventually in 1956, John Bardeen, Leon Cooper and John Schrieffer developed the so-called BCS theory of superconductivity, based on the discovery that arbitrarily small attraction between two electrons of opposite spin mediated by phonons in the lattice can give rise to a bound state called a Cooper pair. The study of phase transitions and the critical behavior of observables, termed critical phenomena, was a major field of interest in the 1960s.

Around the 1960s, the study of physical properties of liquids was added to this list, forming the basis for the more comprehensive specialty of condensed matter physics.

In the 1960s and 70s, some physicists felt the more comprehensive name better fit the funding environment and Cold War politics of the time. References to "condensed" states can be traced to earlier sources.

Eventually in 1956, John Bardeen, Leon Cooper and John Schrieffer developed the so-called BCS theory of superconductivity, based on the discovery that arbitrarily small attraction between two electrons of opposite spin mediated by phonons in the lattice can give rise to a bound state called a Cooper pair. The study of phase transitions and the critical behavior of observables, termed critical phenomena, was a major field of interest in the 1960s.

Although Anderson and Heine helped popularize the name "condensed matter", it had been used in Europe for some years, most prominently in the Springer-Verlag journal Physics of Condensed Matter, launched in 1963.

Finally in 1964–65, Walter Kohn, Pierre Hohenberg and Lu Jeu Sham proposed the density functional theory which gave realistic descriptions for bulk and surface properties of metals.

The density functional theory (DFT) has been widely used since the 1970s for band structure calculations of variety of solids. === Symmetry breaking === Some states of matter exhibit symmetry breaking, where the relevant laws of physics possess some form of symmetry that is broken.

Wilson in 1972, under the formalism of the renormalization group in the context of quantum field theory. The quantum Hall effect was discovered by Klaus von Klitzing, Dorda and Pepper in 1980 when they observed the Hall conductance to be integer multiples of a fundamental constant e^2/h.(see figure) The effect was observed to be independent of parameters such as system size and impurities.

Wilson in 1972, under the formalism of the renormalization group in the context of quantum field theory. The quantum Hall effect was discovered by Klaus von Klitzing, Dorda and Pepper in 1980 when they observed the Hall conductance to be integer multiples of a fundamental constant e^2/h.(see figure) The effect was observed to be independent of parameters such as system size and impurities.

In 1981, theorist Robert Laughlin proposed a theory explaining the unanticipated precision of the integral plateau.

Shortly after, in 1982, Horst Störmer and Daniel Tsui observed the fractional quantum Hall effect where the conductance was now a rational multiple of the constant e^2/h.

Laughlin, in 1983, realized that this was a consequence of quasiparticle interaction in the Hall states and formulated a variational method solution, named the Laughlin wavefunction.

Thouless and collaborators was further expanded leading to the discovery of topological insulators. In 1986, Karl Müller and Johannes Bednorz discovered the first [temperature superconductor], a material which was superconducting at temperatures as high as 50 kelvins.

In particular, they are used to engineer one-, two- and three-dimensional lattices for a Hubbard model with pre-specified parameters, and to study phase transitions for antiferromagnetic and spin liquid ordering. In 1995, a gas of rubidium atoms cooled down to a temperature of 170 nK was used to experimentally realize the Bose–Einstein condensate, a novel state of matter originally predicted by S.

Especially PAC is ideal for the study of phase changes at extreme temperature above 2000 °C due to no temperature dependence of the method. === Cold atomic gases === Ultracold atom trapping in optical lattices is an experimental tool commonly used in condensed matter physics, and in atomic, molecular, and optical physics.

A satisfactory theoretical description of high-temperature superconductors is still not known and the field of strongly correlated materials continues to be an active research topic. In 2009, David Field and researchers at Aarhus University discovered spontaneous electric fields when creating prosaic films of various gases.

This has more recently expanded to form the research area of spontelectrics. In 2012 several groups released preprints which suggest that samarium hexaboride has the properties of a topological insulator in accord with the earlier theoretical predictions.

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