Electromagnetic compatibility


Buildings and appliances would soon be provided with input fuses, and later in the 20th century miniature circuit breakers (MCB) would come into use. ===Early twentieth century=== It may be said that radio interference and its correction arose with the first spark-gap experiment of Marconi in the late 1800s.


A variety of issues such as sideband and harmonic emissions, broadband sources, and the ever-increasing popularity of electrical switching devices and their victims, resulted in a steady development of standards and laws. From the late 1970s, the popularity of modern digital circuitry rapidly grew.


In 1979 the American FCC published a regulation that required the electromagnetic emissions of all "digital devices" to be below certain limits.


Low-voltage digital circuits, especially CMOS transistors, became more susceptible to ESD damage as they were miniaturised and, despite the development of on-chip hardening techniques, a new ESD regulatory regime had to be developed. ===Modern era=== From the 1980s on the explosive growth in mobile communications and broadcast media channels put huge pressure on the available airspace.


Digital systems are inherently less susceptible than analogue systems, and also offer far easier ways (such as software) to implement highly sophisticated protection and error-correction measures. In 1985 the USA released the ISM bands for low-power mobile digital communications, leading to the development of Wi-Fi and remotely-operated car door keys.


EU directive 2004/108/EC (previously 89/336/EEC) on EMC defines the rules for the distribution of electric devices within the European Union.

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Page generated on 2021-08-05