In in vivo gene electrotransfer also DNA diffusion through extracellular matrix, properties of tissue and overall tissue conductivity are crucial. ==History== In the 1960s, it was known that by applying an external electric field, a large membrane potential at the two pole of a cell can be created.


In the 1970s, it was discovered that when a membrane potential reached a critical level, the membrane will breakdown and that it could recover.


By the 1980s, this opening was being used to introduce various of materials/molecules into the cells. == References == Biotechnology Microbiology Molecular biology Gene delivery Laboratory techniques


Electroporation of injected in utero embryos is performed through the uterus wall, often with forceps-type electrodes to limit damage to the embryo. == In vitro and animal studies == In vivo gene electrotransfer was first described in 1991 and today there are many preclinical studies of gene electrotransfer.


The first research looking at how nanosecond pulses might be used on human cells was conducted by researchers at Eastern Virginia Medical School and Old Dominion University, and published in 2003. ==Medical applications== The first medical application of electroporation was used for introducing poorly permeant anticancer drugs into tumor nodules.


The method is used to deliver large variety of therapeutic genes for potential treatment of several diseases, such as: disorders in immune system, tumors, metabolic disorders, monogenetic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, analgesia…. With regards to irreversible electroporation, the first successful treatment of malignant cutaneous tumors implanted in mice was completed in 2007 by a group of scientists who achieved complete tumor ablation in 12 out of 13 mice.

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