According to epiphenomenalism, animals experience pain only as a result of neurophysiology. In 1870, Huxley conducted a case study on a French soldier who had sustained a shot in the Franco-Prussian War that fractured his left parietal bone.


In 1874, Huxley argued, in the Presidential Address to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, that animals are conscious automata.


Huxley's mechanistic attitude towards the body convinced him that the brain alone causes behavior. In the early 1900s scientific behaviorists such as Ivan Pavlov, John B.


By the 1960s, scientific behaviourism met substantial difficulties and eventually gave way to the cognitive revolution.


In 1970, Keith Campbell proposed his "new epiphenomenalism", which states that the body produces a spiritual mind that does not act on the body.


In 2001, David Chalmers and Frank Jackson argued that claims about conscious states should be deduced a priori from claims about physical states alone.

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