Etruscan language


In 1858, the last attempt was made by Johann Gustav Stickel, Jena University in his Das Etruskische [...] als semitische Sprache erwiesen.


In 1861, Robert Ellis proposed that Etruscan was related to Armenian, which is nowadays acknowledged as an Indo-European language.


In 1874, the British scholar Isaac Taylor brought up the idea of a genetic relationship between Etruscan and Hungarian, of which also Jules Martha would approve in his exhaustive study La langue étrusque (1913).


One 19th-century writer argued in 1892 that Etruscan deities retained an influence on early modern Tuscan folklore. Around 180, the Latin author Aulus Gellius mentions Etruscan alongside the Gaulish language in an anecdote.


In 1911, the French orientalist Baron Carra de Vaux suggested a connection between Etruscan and the Altaic languages.


The date is roughly 500 BC. The tablets were found in 1964 by Massimo Pallottino during an excavation at the ancient Etruscan port of Pyrgi, now Santa Severa.


Giuliano Bonfante, a leading scholar in the field, argued in 1990 that "it resembles no other language in Europe or elsewhere". ===Other hypotheses=== Over the centuries many hypotheses on the Etruscan language have been developed, many of which have not been accepted or have been considered highly speculative.


Discovered in 1992, this new tablet contributed the word for "lake", tisś, but not much else. A stele, from a Sanctuary at Poggio Colla, believed to be connected with the cult of the goddess Uni, with about 70 letters.


It is generally accepted that Etruscan does not belong to any living language family, though there have been repeated (unsuccessful) attempts to demonstrate that it is Indo-European. ===Tyrsenian family hypothesis=== In 1998, Helmut Rix put forward the view that Etruscan is related to other members of what he called the "Tyrsenian language family".


Beekes argued in 2002 that the people later known as the Lydians and Etruscans had originally lived in northwest Anatolia, with a coastline to the Sea of Marmara, whence they were driven by the Phrygians circa 1200 BC, leaving a remnant known in antiquity as the Tyrsenoi.


Only discovered in 2016, it is still in the process of being deciphered. ===Inscriptions on monuments=== The main material repository of Etruscan civilization, from the modern perspective, is its tombs.

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