The artwork is primarily seen as a document of its time." Warburg used the term "iconography" in his early research, replacing it in 1908 with "iconology" in his particular method of visual interpretation called "critical iconology", which focused on the tracing of motifs through different cultures and visual forms.


In 1932, Panofsky published a seminal article, introducing a three-step method of visual interpretation dealing with (1) primary or natural subject matter; (2) secondary or conventional subject matter, i.e.


Or more precisely, insofar as images have an active part: the images self-eco-iconicize their iconic environment." ==Studies in iconology== Studies in Iconology is the title of a book by Erwin Panofsky on humanistic themes in the art of the Renaissance, which was first published in 1939.

Oxford 1939. Ross Woodrow, "Erwin Panofsky's Iconology" Iconography and Iconology Lorenzo Giulini, "A Cryptic Dimension in Visual Art" Maria-Irina Popescu, "Iconography Versus Iconology in Erwin Panofsky's Method" Richard Woodfield, "Ernst Gombrich: Iconology and the 'linguistics of the image.' " Jane Davison.


must ultimately do for the image what linguistics has done for the word." However, Michael Camille is of the opinion that "though Panofsky's concept of iconology has been very influential in the humanities and is quite effective when applied to Renaissance art, it is still problematic when applied to art from periods before and after." ==Nuances== In 1952, Creighton Gilbert added another suggestion for a useful meaning of the word "iconology".


London: Phaidon, 1972, pp. 1–25. Keith Moxey, "Panofsky's Concept of Iconology and the Problem of Interpretation in the History of Art." New Literary History, Vol.


2: Interpretation and Culture (Winter 1986), pp. 265–274. Timothy Erwin, "Modern Iconology, Postmodern Iconologies".


New York 1991, pp. 309–320. Michael Hatt and Charlotte Klonk, "Iconography - iconology: Erwin Panofsky".


Wagenbach, Berlin 1992, . Andreas Beyer: 78 Jahre danach - Bemerkungen zur Geistes-Gegenwart der Ikonologie.


Manchester University Press, 2006, pp. 96–119. Paul Taylor, "Introduction." In Iconography without Texts.


London: Warburg Institute, 2008, pp. 1–10. Andreas Beyer (Hrsg.): Die Lesbarkeit der Kunst: Zur Geistes-Gegenwart der Ikonologie.


It is also the name of a peer-reviewed series of books started in 2014 under the editorship of Barbara Baert and published by Peeters international academic publishers, Leuven, Belgium, addressing the deeper meaning of the visual medium throughout human history in the fields of philosophy, art history, theology and cultural anthropology. ==References== ==Further reading== Ernst Gombrich, "Aims and Limits of Iconology." In Symbolic Images (Studies in the Art of the Renaissance, 2).


Wagenbach, Berlin 2017, pp. 135–145, ==External links== Encyclopedia.com: Iconology and Iconography Worldmuseum Ikonography: ICONOGRAPHY - ICONOLOGY Dictionary of Art Historians: Panofsky, Erwin Erwin Panofsky, Studies in Iconology: Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance.

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