He performed śatāvadhāna (100 Avadhāna) at Sir Framji Cowasji Institute in Bombay on 22 January 1887, which gained him praise and publicity.
They were introduced in Mumbai in 1891 and had various conversations through letters while Gandhi was in South Africa.
However, they rarely were a part of the political power during the Islamic rule period of the Indian subcontinent. ===Colonial era=== A Gujarati Jain scholar Virchand Gandhi represented Jainism at the first World Parliament of Religions in 1893, held in America during the Chicago World’s Fair.
Acharya Shantisagar entered Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1927, but was forced to cover his body.
The three dots on the top represent the three jewels mentioned in ancient texts: correct faith, correct understanding and correct conduct, believed to lead to spiritual perfection. In 1974, on the 2500th anniversary of the nirvana of Mahāvīra, the Jain community chose a single combined image for Jainism.
The leader of the campaign for Indian independence, Mahatma Gandhi, greatly influenced by Jainism, said: Chandanaji became the first Jain woman to receive the title of Acharya in 1987. ==See also== Jain law Jain cosmology List of Jains Nonviolence ==Notes== ==References== === Citations === ===Sources=== PB: ; ePDF: ; ePub: . == External links == Dualism Indian religions Nontheism Religions that require vegetarianism Transtheism WikiProject Jainism Polytheism History of India
Jain Dharma is growing in Japan, where more than 5,000 ethnic Japanese families have converted to Jainism in the 2010-2020 decade.
Jains form 0.37% of India's population, mostly in the states of Maharashtra (1.4 million in 2011, 31.46% of Indian Jains), Rajasthan (13.97%), Gujarat (13.02%) and Madhya Pradesh (12.74%).
Jains have the highest literacy rate (87%) in India, in the 7-years to oldest age group, according to its 2011 census, and the most college graduates.
The tall Statue of Ahiṃsā (depicting Rishabhanatha) was erected in the Nashik district in 2015.
Jainism is also spreading rapidly in Japan, where there are more than 5,000 families who have converted to Jainism. According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) conducted in 2015–16, Jains form the wealthiest community in India.
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