Josiah Gibbs was a linguist and theologian who served as professor of sacred literature at Yale Divinity School from 1824 until his death in 1861.

Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made significant theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.

At Yale, Gibbs received prizes for excellence in mathematics and Latin, and he graduated in 1858, near the top of his class.

Josiah Gibbs was a linguist and theologian who served as professor of sacred literature at Yale Divinity School from 1824 until his death in 1861.

After the death of his father in 1861, Gibbs inherited enough money to make him financially independent. Recurrent pulmonary trouble ailed the young Gibbs and his physicians were concerned that he might be susceptible to tuberculosis, which had killed his mother.

Though in later years he used glasses only for reading or other close work, Gibbs's delicate health and imperfect eyesight probably explain why he did not volunteer to fight in the Civil War of 1861–65.

In 1861, Yale had become the first US university to offer a Ph.D.

As a mathematician, he invented modern vector calculus (independently of the British scientist Oliver Heaviside, who carried out similar work during the same period). In 1863, Yale awarded Gibbs the first American doctorate in engineering.

He was not conscripted and he remained at Yale for the duration of the war. In 1863, Gibbs received the first Doctorate of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in engineering granted in the US, for a thesis entitled "On the Form of the Teeth of Wheels in Spur Gearing", in which he used geometrical techniques to investigate the optimum design for gears.

granted in the US in any subject. ===Career, 1863–73=== After graduation, Gibbs was appointed as tutor at the college for a term of three years.

This contains previously unpublished work by Gibbs, from the period between 1863 and 1871. J.

In 1866, he patented a design for a railway brake and read a paper before the Connecticut Academy, entitled "The Proper Magnitude of the Units of Length", in which he proposed a scheme for rationalizing the system of units of measurement used in mechanics. After his term as tutor ended, Gibbs traveled to Europe with his sisters.

They spent the winter of 1866–67 in Paris, where Gibbs attended lectures at the Sorbonne and the Collège de France, given by such distinguished mathematical scientists as Joseph Liouville and Michel Chasles.

Except for his customary summer vacations in the Adirondacks (at Keene Valley, New York) and later at the White Mountains (in Intervale, New Hampshire), his sojourn in Europe in 1866–69 was almost the only time that Gibbs spent outside New Haven.

In August 1867, Gibbs's sister Julia was married in Berlin to Addison Van Name, who had been Gibbs's classmate at Yale.

At the time, German academics were the leading authorities in the natural sciences, especially chemistry and thermodynamics. Gibbs returned to Yale in June 1869 and briefly taught French to engineering students.

Bumstead referred to Gibbs's personal character: == Major scientific contributions == === Chemical and electrochemical thermodynamics === Gibbs's papers from the 1870s introduced the idea of expressing the internal energy U of a system in terms of the entropy S, in addition to the usual state-variables of volume V, pressure p, and temperature T.

Wilson from Gibbs notes, he was largely responsible for the development of the vector calculus techniques still used today in electrodynamics and fluid mechanics. While he was working on vector analysis in the late 1870s, Gibbs discovered that his approach was similar to the one that Grassmann had taken in his "multiple algebra".

After a three-year sojourn in Europe, Gibbs spent the rest of his career at Yale, where he was a professor of mathematical physics from 1871 until his death.

In 1871, he was appointed Professor of Mathematical Physics at Yale, the first such professorship in the United States.

This contains previously unpublished work by Gibbs, from the period between 1863 and 1871. J.

Gibbs, who had independent means and had yet to publish anything, was assigned to teach graduate students exclusively and was hired without salary. ===Career, 1873–80=== Gibbs published his first work in 1873.

That cast is on display at the Yale physics department. Maxwell included a chapter on Gibbs's work in the next edition of his Theory of Heat, published in 1875.

He described that research in a monograph titled "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances", published by the Connecticut Academy in two parts that appeared respectively in 1875 and 1878.

The stamp identifies Gibbs as a "thermodynamicist" and features a diagram from the 4th edition of Maxwell's Theory of Heat, published in 1875, which illustrates Gibbs's thermodynamic surface for water.

He described that research in a monograph titled "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances", published by the Connecticut Academy in two parts that appeared respectively in 1875 and 1878.

Prospects of collaboration between him and Gibbs were cut short by Maxwell's early death in 1879, aged 48.

He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1879 and received the 1880 Rumford Prize from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for his work on chemical thermodynamics.

According to modern commentators, Gibbs continued to work without pay until 1880, when the new Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland offered him a position paying $3,000 per year.

In response, Yale offered him an annual salary of $2,000, which he was content to accept. ===Career, 1880–1903=== From 1880 to 1884, Gibbs worked on developing the exterior algebra of Hermann Grassmann into a vector calculus well-suited to the needs of physicists.

He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1879 and received the 1880 Rumford Prize from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for his work on chemical thermodynamics.

This led him, in the early 1890s, to a controversy with Peter Guthrie Tait and others in the pages of Nature. Gibbs's lecture notes on vector calculus were privately printed in 1881 and 1884 for the use of his students, and were later adapted by Edwin Bidwell Wilson into a textbook, Vector Analysis, published in 1901.

In other mathematical work, he re-discovered the "Gibbs phenomenon" in the theory of Fourier series (which, unbeknownst to him and to later scholars, had been described fifty years before by an obscure English mathematician, Henry Wilbraham). From 1882 to 1889, Gibbs wrote five papers on physical optics, in which he investigated birefringence and other optical phenomena and defended Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light against the mechanical theories of Lord Kelvin and others.

In response, Yale offered him an annual salary of $2,000, which he was content to accept. ===Career, 1880–1903=== From 1880 to 1884, Gibbs worked on developing the exterior algebra of Hermann Grassmann into a vector calculus well-suited to the needs of physicists.

This led him, in the early 1890s, to a controversy with Peter Guthrie Tait and others in the pages of Nature. Gibbs's lecture notes on vector calculus were privately printed in 1881 and 1884 for the use of his students, and were later adapted by Edwin Bidwell Wilson into a textbook, Vector Analysis, published in 1901.

Gibbs generally voted for the Republican candidate in presidential elections but, like other "Mugwumps", his concern over the growing corruption associated with machine politics led him to support Grover Cleveland, a conservative Democrat, in the election of 1884.

Arthur appointed him as one of the commissioners to the National Conference of Electricians, which convened in Philadelphia in September 1884, and Gibbs presided over one of its sessions.

In other mathematical work, he re-discovered the "Gibbs phenomenon" in the theory of Fourier series (which, unbeknownst to him and to later scholars, had been described fifty years before by an obscure English mathematician, Henry Wilbraham). From 1882 to 1889, Gibbs wrote five papers on physical optics, in which he investigated birefringence and other optical phenomena and defended Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light against the mechanical theories of Lord Kelvin and others.

This led him, in the early 1890s, to a controversy with Peter Guthrie Tait and others in the pages of Nature. Gibbs's lecture notes on vector calculus were privately printed in 1881 and 1884 for the use of his students, and were later adapted by Edwin Bidwell Wilson into a textbook, Vector Analysis, published in 1901.

He had a way, toward the end of the afternoon, of taking a stroll about the streets between his study in the old Sloane Laboratory and his home—a little exercise between work and dinner—and one might occasionally come across him at that time." Gibbs did supervise the doctoral thesis on mathematical economics written by Irving Fisher in 1891.

in economics from Yale in 1891.

He was also awarded honorary doctorates by Princeton University and Williams College. In Europe, Gibbs was inducted as honorary member of the London Mathematical Society in 1892 and elected Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1897.

That Gibbs succeeded in interesting his European correspondents in his work is demonstrated by the fact that his monograph "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances" was translated into German (then the leading language for chemistry) by Wilhelm Ostwald in 1892 and into French by Henri Louis Le Châtelier in 1899. ==Influence== Gibbs's most immediate and obvious influence was on physical chemistry and statistical mechanics, two disciplines which he greatly helped to found.

In that work, published in 1892 as Mathematical Investigations in the Theory of Value and Prices, Fisher drew a direct analogy between Gibbsian equilibrium in physical and chemical systems, and the general equilibrium of markets, and he used Gibbs's vectorial notation.

He was also awarded honorary doctorates by Princeton University and Williams College. In Europe, Gibbs was inducted as honorary member of the London Mathematical Society in 1892 and elected Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1897.

That Gibbs succeeded in interesting his European correspondents in his work is demonstrated by the fact that his monograph "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances" was translated into German (then the leading language for chemistry) by Wilhelm Ostwald in 1892 and into French by Henri Louis Le Châtelier in 1899. ==Influence== Gibbs's most immediate and obvious influence was on physical chemistry and statistical mechanics, two disciplines which he greatly helped to found.

Max Planck received the 1918 Nobel Prize for his work on quantum mechanics, particularly his 1900 paper on Planck's law for quantized black-body radiation.

Through the 1901 textbook Vector Analysis prepared by E.

The publication in 1901 of E.

Gibbs's derivation of the laws of thermodynamics from the statistical properties of systems consisting of many particles was presented in his highly influential textbook Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, published in 1902, a year before his death. Gibbs's retiring personality and intense focus on his work limited his accessibility to students.

Guggenheim. Gibbs's work on statistical ensembles, as presented in his 1902 textbook, has had a great impact in both theoretical physics and in pure mathematics.

According to mathematical physicist Arthur Wightman, Initially unaware of Gibbs's contributions in that field, Albert Einstein wrote three papers on statistical mechanics, published between 1902 and 1904.

Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made significant theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.

Another distinguished student was Lee De Forest, later a pioneer of radio technology. Gibbs died in New Haven on April 28, 1903, at the age of 64, the victim of an acute intestinal obstruction.

In Edward Bidwell Wilson's view, According to Lynde Wheeler, who had been Gibbs's student at Yale, in his later years Gibbs He was a careful investor and financial manager, and at his death in 1903 his estate was valued at $100,000 (roughly $ today).

According to mathematical physicist Arthur Wightman, Initially unaware of Gibbs's contributions in that field, Albert Einstein wrote three papers on statistical mechanics, published between 1902 and 1904.

Wiener explained in the preface to his book The Human Use of Human Beings that it was "devoted to the impact of the Gibbsian point of view on modern life, both through the substantive changes it has made to working science, and through the changes it has made indirectly in our attitude to life in general." ==Commemoration== When the German physical chemist Walther Nernst visited Yale in 1906 to give the Silliman lecture, he was surprised to find no tangible memorial for Gibbs.

For scans of the 1906 printing, see vol.

van der Waals received the 1910 Nobel Prize "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids" he acknowledged the great influence of Gibbs's work on that subject.

In 1910, the American Chemical Society established the Willard Gibbs Award for eminent work in pure or applied chemistry.

This was finally unveiled in 1912, in the form of a bronze bas-relief by sculptor Lee Lawrie, installed in the Sloane Physics Laboratory.

Max Planck received the 1918 Nobel Prize for his work on quantum mechanics, particularly his 1900 paper on Planck's law for quantized black-body radiation.

The essay remained unpublished until it appeared posthumously in 1919, in The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma, edited by Henry Adams's younger brother Brooks. In the 1930s, feminist poet Muriel Rukeyser became fascinated by Willard Gibbs and wrote a long poem about his life and work ("Gibbs", included in the collection A Turning Wind, published in 1939), as well as a book-length biography (Willard Gibbs, 1942).

In 1923, the American Mathematical Society endowed the Josiah Willard Gibbs Lectureship, "to show the public some idea of the aspects of mathematics and its applications". In 1945, Yale University created the J.

For scans of the 1928 printing, see vol.

Willard Gibbs, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1929 [1901]). J.

The essay remained unpublished until it appeared posthumously in 1919, in The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma, edited by Henry Adams's younger brother Brooks. In the 1930s, feminist poet Muriel Rukeyser became fascinated by Willard Gibbs and wrote a long poem about his life and work ("Gibbs", included in the collection A Turning Wind, published in 1939), as well as a book-length biography (Willard Gibbs, 1942).

Gibbs crater, near the eastern limb of the Moon, was named in the scientist's honor in 1964. Edward Guggenheim introduced the symbol G for the Gibbs free energy in 1933, and this was used also by Dirk ter Haar in 1966.

The essay remained unpublished until it appeared posthumously in 1919, in The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma, edited by Henry Adams's younger brother Brooks. In the 1930s, feminist poet Muriel Rukeyser became fascinated by Willard Gibbs and wrote a long poem about his life and work ("Gibbs", included in the collection A Turning Wind, published in 1939), as well as a book-length biography (Willard Gibbs, 1942).

Van Name had withheld the family papers from her and, after her book was published in 1942 to positive literary but mixed scientific reviews, he tried to encourage Gibbs's former students to produce a more technically oriented biography.

In 1923, the American Mathematical Society endowed the Josiah Willard Gibbs Lectureship, "to show the public some idea of the aspects of mathematics and its applications". In 1945, Yale University created the J.

According to Rukeyser: In 1946, Fortune magazine illustrated a cover story on "Fundamental Science" with a representation of the thermodynamic surface that Maxwell had built based on Gibbs's proposal.

Dudley (eds.),The Early Work of Willard Gibbs in Applied Mechanics, (New York: Henry Schuman, 1947).

Willard Gibbs Professorship of Thermomechanics, held as of 2014 by Bernard Coleman. Gibbs was elected in 1950 to the Hall of Fame for Great Americans.

With Van Name's and Wilson's encouragement, physicist Lynde Wheeler published a new biography of Gibbs in 1951. Both Gibbs and Rukeyser's biography of him figure prominently in the poetry collection True North (1997) by Stephanie Strickland.

In 1960, William Giauque and others suggested the name "gibbs" (abbreviated gbs.) for the unit of entropy calorie per kelvin, but this usage did not become common, and the corresponding SI unit joule per kelvin carries no special name. In 1954, a year before his death, Albert Einstein was asked by an interviewer who were the greatest thinkers that he had known.

Van Name, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957 [1928]).

The oceanographic research ship USNS Josiah Willard Gibbs (T-AGOR-1) was in service with the United States Navy from 1958 to 1971.

In 1960, William Giauque and others suggested the name "gibbs" (abbreviated gbs.) for the unit of entropy calorie per kelvin, but this usage did not become common, and the corresponding SI unit joule per kelvin carries no special name. In 1954, a year before his death, Albert Einstein was asked by an interviewer who were the greatest thinkers that he had known.

Gibbs, Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, developed with especial reference to the rational foundation of thermodynamics, (New York: Dover Publications, 1960 [1902]). Gibbs's other papers are included in both: The Scientific Papers of J.

Gibbs crater, near the eastern limb of the Moon, was named in the scientist's honor in 1964. Edward Guggenheim introduced the symbol G for the Gibbs free energy in 1933, and this was used also by Dirk ter Haar in 1966.

Gibbs crater, near the eastern limb of the Moon, was named in the scientist's honor in 1964. Edward Guggenheim introduced the symbol G for the Gibbs free energy in 1933, and this was used also by Dirk ter Haar in 1966.

Onsager, who much like Gibbs, focused on applying new mathematical ideas to problems in physical chemistry, won the 1968 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

Crowther, Famous American Men of Science, (Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1969 [1937]).

The oceanographic research ship USNS Josiah Willard Gibbs (T-AGOR-1) was in service with the United States Navy from 1958 to 1971.

Willard Gibbs Professorship in Theoretical Chemistry, held until 1973 by Lars Onsager.

Willard Gibbs, American mathematical physicist par excellence, (Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press, 1974).

Israel, Convexity in the Theory of Lattice Gases, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979), pp. ix–lxxxv.

Willard Gibbs, in two volumes, (New York: Arno, 1980 [1936]).

Rukeyser, Willard Gibbs: American Genius, (Woodbridge, CT: Ox Bow Press, 1988 [1942]).

Willard Gibbs Assistant Professorship in Mathematics, Yale has also hosted two symposia dedicated to Gibbs's life and work, one in 1989 and another on the centenary of his death, in 2003.

Mostow (eds.), Proceedings of the Gibbs Symposium, Yale University, May 15–17, 1989, (American Mathematical Society and American Institute of Physics, 1990). W.

Mostow (eds.), Proceedings of the Gibbs Symposium, Yale University, May 15–17, 1989, (American Mathematical Society and American Institute of Physics, 1990). W.

Van Name, (Woodbridge, CT: Ox Bow Press, 1993 [1906]).

Crowe, A History of Vector Analysis: The Evolution of the Idea of a Vectorial System, (New York: Dover, 1994 [1967]).

Wheeler, Josiah Willard Gibbs, The History of a Great Mind, (Woodbridge, CT: Ox Bow Press, 1998 [1951]).

Cropper, "The Greatest Simplicity: Willard Gibbs", in Great Physicists, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 106–123.

Willard Gibbs Assistant Professorship in Mathematics, Yale has also hosted two symposia dedicated to Gibbs's life and work, one in 1989 and another on the centenary of his death, in 2003.

That novel also prominently discusses the birefringence of Iceland spar, an optical phenomenon that Gibbs investigated. ===Gibbs stamp (2005)=== In 2005, the United States Postal Service issued the American Scientists commemorative postage stamp series designed by artist Victor Stabin, depicting Gibbs, John von Neumann, Barbara McClintock, and Richard Feynman.

5, (Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008), pp. 386–393. M.

Willard Gibbs Professorship of Thermomechanics, held as of 2014 by Bernard Coleman. Gibbs was elected in 1950 to the Hall of Fame for Great Americans.

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