This fractal was first defined and drawn in 1978 by Robert W.

On 1 March 1980, at IBM's Thomas J.

Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, Benoit Mandelbrot first saw a visualization of the set. Mandelbrot studied the parameter space of quadratic polynomials in an article that appeared in 1980.

Hubbard (1985), who established many of its fundamental properties and named the set in honor of Mandelbrot for his influential work in fractal geometry. The mathematicians Heinz-Otto Peitgen and Peter Richter became well known for promoting the set with photographs, books (1986), and an internationally touring exhibit of the German Goethe-Institut (1985). The cover article of the August 1985 Scientific American introduced a wide audience to the algorithm for computing the Mandelbrot set.

Hypothetical non-hyperbolic components of the Mandelbrot set are often referred to as "queer" or ghost components. For real quadratic polynomials, this question was answered positively in the 1990s independently by Lyubich and by Graczyk and Świątek.

Milnor, Dynamics in One Complex Variable (Third Edition), Annals of Mathematics Studies 160, (Princeton University Press, 2006), (First appeared in 1990 as a Stony Brook IMS Preprint, available as arXiV:math.DS/9201272 ) Nigel Lesmoir-Gordon, The Colours of Infinity: The Beauty, The Power and the Sense of Fractals, (includes a DVD featuring Arthur C.

We can also find the numerator of the rotation number, p, by numbering each antenna counterclockwise from the limb from 1 to q - 1 and finding which antenna is the shortest. === Pi in the Mandelbrot set === In an attempt to demonstrate that the thickness of the p/q-limb is zero, David Boll carried out a computer experiment in 1991, where he computed the number of iterations required for the series to diverge for z = − + iε (− being the location thereof).

There also exists a topological proof to the connectedness that was discovered in 2001 by Jeremy Kahn. The dynamical formula for the uniformisation of the complement of the Mandelbrot set, arising from Douady and Hubbard's proof of the connectedness of M, gives rise to external rays of the Mandelbrot set.

In 2001, Aaron Klebanoff proved Boll's discovery. === Fibonacci sequence in the Mandelbrot set === It can be shown that the Fibonacci sequence is located within the Mandelbrot Set and that a relation exists between the main cardioid and the Farey Diagram.

Milnor, Dynamics in One Complex Variable (Third Edition), Annals of Mathematics Studies 160, (Princeton University Press, 2006), (First appeared in 1990 as a Stony Brook IMS Preprint, available as arXiV:math.DS/9201272 ) Nigel Lesmoir-Gordon, The Colours of Infinity: The Beauty, The Power and the Sense of Fractals, (includes a DVD featuring Arthur C.

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