Earlier secret talks had been held at the Pentagon between 22 March and 1 April 1948, of which Achilles said: The talks lasted about two weeks and by the time they finished, it had been secretly agreed that there would be a treaty, and I had a draft of one in the bottom drawer of my safe.
on 4 April 1949. ==Background== The treaty was signed in Washington, D.C.
on 4 April 1949 by a committee which was chaired by US diplomat Theodore Achilles.
on 4 April 1949: – Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Paul-Henri Spaak and Ambassador Baron – Secretary of State for External Affairs Lester B.
I wish I had kept it, but when I left the Department in 1950, I dutifully left it in the safe and I have never been able to trace it in the archives.
It was the opinion in August 1965 of the US State Department, the US Defense Department and the legal division of NATO that an attack on the U.S.
The US said that Turkey "has a right to take action" against the PKK, a Kurdish insurrectionary group that has sought since 1984 autonomy from Turkey.
Rather, it was invoked for the first and only time in 2001 during Operation Eagle Assist in response to the September 11 attacks. By signing the North Atlantic Treaty, parties are "determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilization of the peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law." ==Members== ===Founding members=== The following twelve states signed the treaty and thus became the founding members of NATO.
It commits each member state to consider an armed attack against one member state, in Europe or North America, to be an armed attack against them all. It has been invoked only once in NATO history: by the United States after the September 11 attacks in 2001.
The invocation was confirmed on 4 October 2001, when NATO determined that the attacks were indeed eligible under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty.
Active Endeavour began on 4 October 2001.
state of Hawaii would not trigger the treaty, but an attack on the other 49 would. On 16 April 2003, NATO agreed to take command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan, which includes troops from 42 countries.
It is a common misconception that NATO involvement in Afghanistan was a result of Article 5's invocation. In April 2012, Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdoğan considered invoking Article 5 of the NATO treaty to protect Turkish national security in a dispute over the Syrian Civil War.
Everyone knows his duty, and will continue to do what is necessary." NATO Secretary-General Rasmussen later said in advance of the October 2012 ministerial meeting that the alliance was prepared to defend Turkey, and acknowledged that this border dispute concerned the alliance, but underlined the alliance's hesitancy over a possible intervention: "A military intervention can have unpredicted repercussions.
We have no intention to interfere militarily [at present with Syria]." On 27 March 2014, recordings were released on YouTube of a conversation purportedly involving then Turkish foreign minister Ahmet Davutoğlu, Foreign Ministry Undersecretary Feridun Sinirlioğlu, then National Intelligence Organization (MİT) head Hakan Fidan, and Deputy Chief of General Staff General Yaşar Güler.
A final strategy is expected in October 2015." In another report, the journalist reported that "as part of the hardened stance, the UK has committed £750,000 of its money to support a counter-propaganda unit at NATO's headquarters in Brussels." ==Article 6== Article 6 states that the treaty covers only member states' territories in Europe and North America, and islands in the North Atlantic north of the Tropic of Cancer, plus French Algeria.
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