Keynesians later adopted much of the monetarists' view of the quantity theory of money and shifting Phillips curve, theories they initially rejected. First proposed by Ferdinand de Saussure in 1879, the laryngeal theory in Indo-European linguistics postulated the existence of "laryngeal" consonants in the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), a theory that was confirmed by the discovery of the Hittite language in the early 20th century.
In the 20th century, new developments in the basic concepts of mathematics, physics, and biology revitalized interest in the question among scholars. === Original usage === In his 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn explains the development of paradigm shifts in science into four stages: Normal science – In this stage, which Kuhn sees as most prominent in science, a dominant paradigm is active.
47, (1973–1974), pp. 5–20) in 1974 arguing that the notion that any languages or theories could be incommensurable with one another was itself incoherent.
Küng addresses paradigm change in his books, Paradigm Change in Theology and Theology for the Third Millennium: An Ecumenical View. In the later part of the 1990s, 'paradigm shift' emerged as a buzzword, popularized as marketing speak and appearing more frequently in print and publication.
Cambridge University Press, 1993, ). ===Gradualism vs.
It is referred to in several articles and books as abused and overused to the point of becoming meaningless. The concept of technological paradigms has been advanced, particularly by Giovanni Dosi. == Criticism == In a 2015 retrospective on Kuhn, the philosopher Martin Cohen describes the notion of the paradigm shift as a kind of intellectual virus – spreading from hard science to social science and on to the arts and even everyday political rhetoric today.
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