These are two rival street gangs comprising loosely linked international franchise organizations, who wield a power somewhat like that of the US mafia of the 1930s and are for the moment above and beyond the grasp of the law.
That industry is of a different class of organized crime in Guatemala, with Mexican smugglers and top-ranking Guatemalan police officials regularly making headlines being caught with hundreds of kilograms of cocaine. The mara phenomenon originated in the United States in the 1980s, specifically in Los Angeles, among refugees fleeing civil wars in El Salvador and Guatemala.
Guatemala is a Constitutional Republic. Guatemala's 1985 Constitution provides for a separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. ==Executive branch== The president and vice president are directly elected through universal suffrage and limited to one term.
However, under the Guatemalan Constitution of 1985, passage of many kinds of legislation requires a two-thirds vote.
Later many members of the maras were deported from the United States to their countries of origin, and during the 1990s this has helped fuel the spread of the two gangs across the United States, Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and even Italy and Spain.
Guatemala City and 333 other municipalities are governed by popularly elected mayors or councils. ==Foreign relations== Guatemala's major diplomatic interests are regional security and increasingly, regional development and economic integration. ==Political culture and human rights== The 1999 presidential and legislative elections were considered by international observers to have been free and fair.[..By whom ?].
Passage of such legislation is not possible, therefore, with FRG votes alone. The political balance was disrupted in 2000 when allegations surfaced that the FRG had illegally altered legislation.
The government has stated it will require until 2002 to meet the target of increasing its tax burden (at about 10% of GDP, currently the lowest in the region) to 12% of GDP. During the Presidential race, the FRG organized what will later be known as Black Thursday (Jueves negro).
Common sense argued that if such a clause was not retroactive by nature it would have no point. Since 2004 Óscar Berger of the GANA (a coalition of political parties rather than a single one) won the elections, it is important to note that this was the first government in the history of democratic Guatemala that did not have an overwhelming majority in Congress.
After he took office in January 2004 it was made public that the FRG had wildly ransacked the government going to the extremes of stealing computer equipment and objects of historic importance.
The SAT has become stringent in its application of the law seeking the full penalties of incarceration for tax evasion. In September 2006 the PNC (civil national police), in a joint action with the national military took by storm the Pavon detention centre, a prison with 1,500 inmates which until that date hadn't been requisitioned for 10 years and which was a hub of criminal activity.
This was a milestone in the history of Guatemala and made national headlines. 2006 saw the dismemberment of the GANA in the face of the 2007 elections.
It fractured into many parties, damaging the ability of the government to get legislation through Congress. In the November 2007, second round presidential elections, Álvaro Colom of the UNE was elected president, defeating ex-general Otto Perez Molina of the PP.
And in 2011, Retired General Otto Pérez Molina of the Patriotic Party won the presidential election in a runoff against populist Manuel Baldizón of the LIDER party.
Pérez Molina assumed office on 14 January 2012, and his vice president is Roxana Baldetti.
In september 2015, President Otto Perez Molina resigned because of bribery allegations. In October 2015 presidential election, former TV comedian Jimmy Morales was elected as the new President of Guatemala after huge anti-corruption demonstrations.
He took office in January 2016.
Giammattei had won the presidential election in August 2019 with his "tough-on-crime" agenda. ==See also== Central American Parliament ==References== ==External links== Congresso of the Republic of Guatemala Justice of Guatemala
A vice president can run for president after four years out of office. |President |Alejandro Giammattei |Vamos |14 January 2020 |} ==Legislative branch== The Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la República) has 158 members, elected for a four-year term, partially in departmental constituencies and partially by nationwide proportional representation. ==Political parties and elections== Political parties in Guatemala are generally numerous and unstable.
In January 2020, Alejandro Giammattei replaced Jimmy Morales as the President of Guatemala.
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