The Cambridge History of Communism (Volume 3): Endgames?.Late Communism in Global Perspective, 1968 to the Present (2017) excerpt Kotkin, Stephen.


Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse, 1970-2000 (2nd ed.


the Trotskyist parties) who felt that the fall of the Soviet Union vindicated their views and predictions did not particularly prosper from it—in fact, some became less radical as well. == Economy == Several communist states had undergone economic reforms from a planned economy towards a more market-oriented economy in the 1980s, notably Hungary, Poland and Yugoslavia.


Furthermore, the aftereffects of the 1988 Armenian earthquake were still being felt.


In 1989-1991, Communist party governance collapsed in most Communist party governed states.

In most countries in the Eastern Bloc, following the fall of communist-led governments in 1989 the communist parties split in two factions: a reformist social democratic party and a new less reform-oriented communist party.

Some populations are still considerably worse off today than they were in 1989 (e.g.

During 1992–93, the GDP had dropped around 60% from its peak in 1989.


Although some (including Charles Paul Lewis) stress the beneficial effect of multinational investment, the reforms also had important negative consequences that are still unfolding. Average standards of living registered a catastrophic fall in the early 1990s in many parts of the former Comecon—most notably in the former Soviet Union—and began to rise again only toward the end of the decade.


During 1992–93, the GDP had dropped around 60% from its peak in 1989.


Few years after adoption of national currency, the dram in 1993, it experienced hyperinflation.


Despite the fact that a cease-fire has been in place since 1994, the dispute with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh has not been resolved.


Comrades: A World History of Communism (2007). == External links == "Parties and Elections in Europe" Daniel Nelson (July/August 2000).


the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland) and some such as Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania (see Baltic Tiger) and Slovakia underwent an economic boom, although all have suffered from the 2009 recession, except for Poland, which as the only country in Europe maintained growth despite the worldwide recession. Armenia's economy, like that of other former states of Soviet Union, suffered from the consequences of a centrally planned economy and the collapse of former Soviet trade patterns.

The Red Flag: A History of Communism (Grove, 2009). Service, Robert.

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