By 1758, two Elizabethan Exchequer standard weights for the avoirdupois pound existed, and when measured in troy grains they were found to be of 7,002 grains and 6,999 grains. =====Imperial Standard Pound===== In the United Kingdom, weights and measures have been defined by a long series of Acts of Parliament, the intention of which has been to regulate the sale of commodities.

The measures and weights of the Habsburg monarchy were reformed in 1761 by Empress Maria Theresia of Austria.

It was introduced by the government of John II. The livre métrique was set equal to the kilogram by the decree of 13 Brumaire an IX between 1800 and 1812.

In Prussia, a reform in 1816 defined a uniform civil pound in terms of the Prussian foot and distilled water, resulting in a Prussian pound of 467.711 grams. Between 1803 and 1815, all German regions west of the River Rhine were French, organised in the departements: Roer, Sarre, Rhin-et-Moselle, and Mont-Tonnerre.

Bavarian reforms in 1809 and 1811 adopted essentially the same standard pound.

Bavarian reforms in 1809 and 1811 adopted essentially the same standard pound.

It was introduced by the government of John II. The livre métrique was set equal to the kilogram by the decree of 13 Brumaire an IX between 1800 and 1812.

This was a form of official metric pound. The livre usuelle (customary unit) was defined as 500 grams by the decree of 28 March 1812.

In Prussia, a reform in 1816 defined a uniform civil pound in terms of the Prussian foot and distilled water, resulting in a Prussian pound of 467.711 grams. Between 1803 and 1815, all German regions west of the River Rhine were French, organised in the departements: Roer, Sarre, Rhin-et-Moselle, and Mont-Tonnerre.

In Prussia, a reform in 1816 defined a uniform civil pound in terms of the Prussian foot and distilled water, resulting in a Prussian pound of 467.711 grams. Between 1803 and 1815, all German regions west of the River Rhine were French, organised in the departements: Roer, Sarre, Rhin-et-Moselle, and Mont-Tonnerre.

It was constructed following the destruction of the Houses of Parliament by fire in 1834, and is stamped P.S.

It was abolished as a unit of mass effective 1 January 1840 by a decree of 4 July 1837, but is still used informally. ===German and Austrian Pfund=== Originally derived from the Roman libra, the definition varied throughout Germany in the Middle Ages and onward.

It was abolished as a unit of mass effective 1 January 1840 by a decree of 4 July 1837, but is still used informally. ===German and Austrian Pfund=== Originally derived from the Roman libra, the definition varied throughout Germany in the Middle Ages and onward.

In 1854, the pound of 500 grams also became the official mass standard of the German Customs Union, but local pounds continued to co-exist with the Zollverein pound for some time in some German states.

Quantifying devices used by traders (weights, weighing machines, containers of volumes, measures of length) are subject to official inspection, and penalties apply if they are fraudulent. The Weights and Measures Act 1878 marked a major overhaul of the British system of weights and measures, and the definition of the pound given there remained in force until the 1960s.

From the 17th century onward, it was equal to 425.076 grams in Sweden but was abandoned in 1889 when Sweden switched to the metric system. In Norway, the same name was used for a weight of 498.1 grams.

According to a 1959 NIST publication, the United States 1894 pound differed from the international pound by approximately one part in 10 million.

In 1899, the funt was the basic unit of weight, and all other units of weight were formed from it; in particular, a zolotnik was 1/96 of a funt, and a pood was 40 funts. ===Skålpund=== The Skålpund was a Scandinavian measurement that varied in weight between regions.

Since 1 July 1959, the international avoirdupois pound (symbol lb) has been defined as exactly . In the United Kingdom, the use of the international pound was implemented in the Weights and Measures Act 1963. An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains.

The following year, this relationship was refined as pounds to a kilogram, following a determination of the British pound. In 1959, the United States National Bureau of Standards redefined the pound (avoirdupois) to be exactly equal to 0.453 592 37 kilograms, as had been declared by the International Yard and Pound Agreement of that year.

According to a 1959 NIST publication, the United States 1894 pound differed from the international pound by approximately one part in 10 million.

Quantifying devices used by traders (weights, weighing machines, containers of volumes, measures of length) are subject to official inspection, and penalties apply if they are fraudulent. The Weights and Measures Act 1878 marked a major overhaul of the British system of weights and measures, and the definition of the pound given there remained in force until the 1960s.

Since 1 July 1959, the international avoirdupois pound (symbol lb) has been defined as exactly . In the United Kingdom, the use of the international pound was implemented in the Weights and Measures Act 1963. An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains.

The conversion factor between the kilogram and the international pound was therefore chosen to be divisible by 7, and an (international) grain is thus equal to exactly . In the UK, the process of metrication and European units of measurement directives were expected to eliminate the use of the pound and ounce, but in 2007 the European Commission abandoned the requirement for metric-only labelling on packaged goods there, and allowed for dual metric–imperial marking to continue indefinitely.

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Page generated on 2021-08-05