Programming language

1800

Since the early 1800s, programs have been used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms, music boxes and player pianos.

1943

An early high-level programming language to be designed for a computer was Plankalk├╝l, developed for the German Z3 by Konrad Zuse between 1943 and 1945.

1945

An early high-level programming language to be designed for a computer was Plankalk├╝l, developed for the German Z3 by Konrad Zuse between 1943 and 1945.

1949

However, it was not implemented until 1998 and 2000. John Mauchly's Short Code, proposed in 1949, was one of the first high-level languages ever developed for an electronic computer.

1950

These served to make the program much more human-readable and relieved the programmer of tedious and error-prone address calculations. The first [programming language]s, or third-generation programming languages (3GL), were written in the 1950s.

However, the program had to be translated into machine code every time it ran, making the process much slower than running the equivalent machine code. At the University of Manchester, Alick Glennie developed Autocode in the early 1950s.

Brooker also developed an autocode for the Ferranti Mercury in the 1950s in conjunction with the University of Manchester.

1952

The first code and compiler was developed in 1952 for the Mark 1 computer at the University of Manchester and is considered to be the first compiled high-level programming language. The second autocode was developed for the Mark 1 by R.

1954

Brooker in 1954 and was called the "Mark 1 Autocode".

A contemporary but separate thread of development, Atlas Autocode was developed for the University of Manchester Atlas 1 machine. In 1954, FORTRAN was invented at IBM by John Backus.

1955

It was developed for the UNIVAC I at Remington Rand during the period from 1955 until 1959.

Hopper found that business data processing customers were uncomfortable with mathematical notation, and in early 1955, she and her team wrote a specification for an English programming language and implemented a prototype.

1958

The FLOW-MATIC compiler became publicly available in early 1958 and was substantially complete in 1959.

1959

It was developed for the UNIVAC I at Remington Rand during the period from 1955 until 1959.

The FLOW-MATIC compiler became publicly available in early 1958 and was substantially complete in 1959.

1961

Hartley of University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory in 1961.

1968

Edsger Dijkstra, in a famous 1968 letter published in the Communications of the ACM, argued that Goto statements should be eliminated from all "higher level" programming languages. ===Consolidation and growth=== The 1980s were years of relative consolidation.

1980

Edsger Dijkstra, in a famous 1968 letter published in the Communications of the ACM, argued that Goto statements should be eliminated from all "higher level" programming languages. ===Consolidation and growth=== The 1980s were years of relative consolidation.

Rather than inventing new paradigms, all of these movements elaborated upon the ideas invented in the previous decades. One important trend in language design for programming large-scale systems during the 1980s was an increased focus on the use of modules or large-scale organizational units of code.

Modula-2, Ada, and ML all developed notable module systems in the 1980s, which were often wedded to generic programming constructs. The rapid growth of the Internet in the mid-1990s created opportunities for new languages.

Java came to be used for server-side programming, and bytecode virtual machines became popular again in commercial settings with their promise of "Write once, run anywhere" (UCSD Pascal had been popular for a time in the early 1980s).

1987

Perl, originally a Unix scripting tool first released in 1987, became common in dynamic websites.

Haynes: Essentials of Programming Languages, The MIT Press 2001. Maurizio Gabbrielli and Simone Martini: "Programming Languages: Principles and Paradigms", Springer, 2010. David Gelernter, Suresh Jagannathan: Programming Linguistics, The MIT Press 1990. Ellis Horowitz (ed.): Programming Languages, a Grand Tour (3rd ed.), 1987. Ellis Horowitz: Fundamentals of Programming Languages, 1989. Shriram Krishnamurthi: Application and Interpretation, online publication. Bruce J.

1989

Haynes: Essentials of Programming Languages, The MIT Press 2001. Maurizio Gabbrielli and Simone Martini: "Programming Languages: Principles and Paradigms", Springer, 2010. David Gelernter, Suresh Jagannathan: Programming Linguistics, The MIT Press 1990. Ellis Horowitz (ed.): Programming Languages, a Grand Tour (3rd ed.), 1987. Ellis Horowitz: Fundamentals of Programming Languages, 1989. Shriram Krishnamurthi: Application and Interpretation, online publication. Bruce J.

1990

Haynes: Essentials of Programming Languages, The MIT Press 2001. Maurizio Gabbrielli and Simone Martini: "Programming Languages: Principles and Paradigms", Springer, 2010. David Gelernter, Suresh Jagannathan: Programming Linguistics, The MIT Press 1990. Ellis Horowitz (ed.): Programming Languages, a Grand Tour (3rd ed.), 1987. Ellis Horowitz: Fundamentals of Programming Languages, 1989. Shriram Krishnamurthi: Application and Interpretation, online publication. Bruce J.

Prentice Hall 1990. David A.

1991

Prentice Hall 1991. David A.

1993

Prentice Hall 1993. David A.

1996

Macmillan 1998. Ravi Sethi: Programming Languages: Concepts and Constructs, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley 1996. Michael L.

1998

However, it was not implemented until 1998 and 2000. John Mauchly's Short Code, proposed in 1949, was one of the first high-level languages ever developed for an electronic computer.

Macmillan 1998. Ravi Sethi: Programming Languages: Concepts and Constructs, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley 1996. Michael L.

1999

MacLennan: Principles of Programming Languages: Design, Evaluation, and Implementation, Oxford University Press 1999. John C.

2000

However, it was not implemented until 1998 and 2000. John Mauchly's Short Code, proposed in 1949, was one of the first high-level languages ever developed for an electronic computer.

Zelkowitz: Programming Languages: Design and Implementation (4th ed.), Prentice Hall 2000. Peter H.

2001

Haynes: Essentials of Programming Languages, The MIT Press 2001. Maurizio Gabbrielli and Simone Martini: "Programming Languages: Principles and Paradigms", Springer, 2010. David Gelernter, Suresh Jagannathan: Programming Linguistics, The MIT Press 1990. Ellis Horowitz (ed.): Programming Languages, a Grand Tour (3rd ed.), 1987. Ellis Horowitz: Fundamentals of Programming Languages, 1989. Shriram Krishnamurthi: Application and Interpretation, online publication. Bruce J.

2002

Mitchell: Concepts in Programming Languages, Cambridge University Press 2002. Benjamin C.

Pierce: Types and Programming Languages, The MIT Press 2002. Terrence W.

2004

Concepts, Techniques, and Models of Computer Programming, The MIT Press 2004. David A.

John Wiley & Sons 2004. ==External links== Programming language classification Notation

2005

Scott: Programming Language Pragmatics, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers 2005. Robert W.

2009

Sebesta: Concepts of Programming Languages, 9th ed., Addison Wesley 2009. Franklyn Turbak and David Gifford with Mark Sheldon: Design Concepts in Programming Languages, The MIT Press 2009. Peter Van Roy and Seif Haridi.

2010

Haynes: Essentials of Programming Languages, The MIT Press 2001. Maurizio Gabbrielli and Simone Martini: "Programming Languages: Principles and Paradigms", Springer, 2010. David Gelernter, Suresh Jagannathan: Programming Linguistics, The MIT Press 1990. Ellis Horowitz (ed.): Programming Languages, a Grand Tour (3rd ed.), 1987. Ellis Horowitz: Fundamentals of Programming Languages, 1989. Shriram Krishnamurthi: Application and Interpretation, online publication. Bruce J.




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