Noted examples at the time included albumin from egg whites, blood serum albumin, fibrin, and wheat gluten. Proteins were first described by the Dutch chemist Gerardus Johannes Mulder and named by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1838.


The understanding of proteins as polypeptides came through the work of Franz Hofmeister and Hermann Emil Fischer in 1902.


The central role of proteins as enzymes in living organisms was not fully appreciated until 1926, when James B.


purified 1 kg of pure bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A and made it freely available to scientists; this gesture helped ribonuclease A become a major target for biochemical study for the following decades. Linus Pauling is credited with the successful prediction of regular protein secondary structures based on [bonding], an idea first put forth by William Astbury in 1933.


Later work by Walter Kauzmann on denaturation, based partly on previous studies by Kaj Linderstrøm-Lang, contributed an understanding of protein folding and structure mediated by [core|hydrophobic interactions]. The first protein to be sequenced was insulin, by Frederick Sanger, in 1949.


In the 1950s, the Armour Hot Dog Co.


He won the Nobel Prize for this achievement in 1958. The first protein structures to be solved were [and

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