It is likely to expand in the next few years as the field shifts toward real-world use in pharmaceutical, data security and other applications. Quantum computing began in the early 1980s when physicist Paul Benioff proposed a quantum mechanical model of the Turing machine. Richard Feynman and Yuri Manin later suggested that a quantum computer had the potential to simulate things a classical computer could not feasibly do.

Four Lectures on Quantum Computing given at Oxford University in July 2006 Models of computation Quantum cryptography Information theory Computational complexity theory Classes of computers Theoretical computer science Open problems Computer-related introductions in 1980 Emerging technologies

Despite ongoing experimental progress since the late 1990s, most researchers believe that "fault-tolerant quantum computing [is] still a rather distant dream." In recent years, investment in quantum computing research has increased in the public and private sectors.

In 1994, Peter Shor developed a quantum algorithm for factoring integers with the potential to decrypt RSA-encrypted communications.

Bill Unruh doubted the practicality of quantum computers in a paper published back in 1994.

Four Lectures on Quantum Computing given at Oxford University in July 2006 Models of computation Quantum cryptography Information theory Computational complexity theory Classes of computers Theoretical computer science Open problems Computer-related introductions in 1980 Emerging technologies

Google announced in 2017 that it expected to achieve quantum supremacy by the end of the year though that did not happen.

IBM said in 2018 that the best classical computers will be beaten on some practical task within about five years and views the quantum supremacy test only as a potential future benchmark.

On 23 October 2019, Google AI, in partnership with the U.S.

Although skeptics like Gil Kalai doubt that quantum supremacy will ever be achieved, in October 2019, a Sycamore processor created in conjunction with Google AI Quantum was reported to have achieved quantum supremacy, with calculations more than 3,000,000 times as fast as those of Summit, generally considered the world's fastest computer.

In December 2020, a group at USTC implemented a type of Boson sampling on 76 photons with a photonic quantum computer Jiuzhang to demonstrate quantum supremacy.

The company claims SpinQ will be released to the public by the fourth quarter of 2021. ==Relation to computability and complexity theory== ===Computability theory=== Any computational problem solvable by a classical computer is also solvable by a quantum computer.

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