These studies emphasized the philosophical aspects of measurement rather than a quantitative approach to extracting information via measurements. See: Dynamical Pictures ==== Development from communication ==== In 1960s, Stratonovich, Helstrom and Gordon proposed a formulation of optical communications using quantum mechanics.

Later, Holevo obtained an upper bound of communication speed in the transmission of a classical message via a quantum channel. ==== Development from atomic physics and relativity ==== In the 1970s techniques of manipulating single quantum states such as the atom trap and the scanning tunneling microscope were starting to get developed.

Extracting and manipulating information stored in individual atoms naturally started to become an interesting avenue, and quantum information and computation was starting to get developed. In the 1980s, interest arose in whether it might be possible to use quantum effects to signal faster than light, an attempt of disproving Einstein's theory of relativity.

The no-cloning theorem is one of the earliest results of quantum information. ==== Development from cryptography ==== Despite all the excitement and interest over studying isolated quantum systems and trying to find a way to circumvent the theory of relativity, research in quantum information theory became stagnant in the 1980s.

This could be used to detect eavesdropping. BB84 The first quantum key distribution scheme BB84, developed by Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard in 1984.

It is usually explained as a method of securely communicating a private key from a third party to another for use in one-time pad encryption. E91 E91 was made by Artur Ekert in 1991.

Peter Shor in 1994 came up with a very important and practical problem, one of finding the prime factors of an integer.

He also showed that error correcting codes could be used to protect information being sent. Quantum information theory also followed a similar trajectory, Ben Schumacher in 1995 made an analogue to Shannon's noiseless coding theorem using the qubit.

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