Petersburg in the late 1880s.

Sir Roger Penrose (born 8 August 1931) is a British mathematical physicist, mathematician, philosopher of science and Nobel Laureate in Physics.

He devised and popularised the Penrose triangle in the 1950s, describing it as "impossibility in its purest form", and exchanged material with the artist M.

Moore generalised matrix inverse, also known as the Moore–Penrose inverse, after it had been reinvented by Arne Bjerhammar in 1951.

Penrose attended University College School and University College London, where he graduated with a first class degree in mathematics. ==Research== In 1955, whilst still a student, Penrose reintroduced the E.

Escher's Waterfall, and Ascending and Descending were in turn inspired by Penrose. As reviewer Manjit Kumar puts it: Penrose spent the academic year 1956–57 as an Assistant Lecturer at Bedford College, London and was then a Research Fellow at St John's College, Cambridge.

Hodge, Penrose finished his PhD at St John's College, Cambridge, in 1958, with a thesis on "tensor methods in algebraic geometry" under algebraist and geometer John A.

During that three year post, he married Joan Isabel Wedge, in 1959.

Before the fellowship ended Penrose won a NATO Research Fellowship for 1959–61, first at Princeton and then at Syracuse University.

He has three sons from a previous marriage to American Joan Isabel Penrose (née Wedge), whom he married in 1959. === Religious views === During an interview with BBC Radio 4 on 25 September 2010, Penrose stated, "I'm not a believer myself.

Returning to the University of London, Penrose spent two years, 1961–63, as a researcher at King's College, London, before returning to the United States to spend the year 1963–64 as a Visiting Associate Professor at the University of Texas at Austin.

Returning to the University of London, Penrose spent two years, 1961–63, as a researcher at King's College, London, before returning to the United States to spend the year 1963–64 as a Visiting Associate Professor at the University of Texas at Austin.

He later held visiting positions at Yeshiva, Princeton and Cornell during 1966-67 and 1969. In 1964, while a reader at Birkbeck College, London, (and having had his attention drawn from pure mathematics to astrophysics by the cosmologist Dennis Sciama, then at Cambridge) in the words of Kip Thorne of Caltech, "Roger Penrose revolutionised the mathematical tools that we use to analyse the properties of spacetime".

He later held visiting positions at Yeshiva, Princeton and Cornell during 1966-67 and 1969. In 1964, while a reader at Birkbeck College, London, (and having had his attention drawn from pure mathematics to astrophysics by the cosmologist Dennis Sciama, then at Cambridge) in the words of Kip Thorne of Caltech, "Roger Penrose revolutionised the mathematical tools that we use to analyse the properties of spacetime".

This effect has come to be called the Terrell rotation or Penrose–Terrell rotation. In 1967, Penrose invented the twistor theory which maps geometric objects in Minkowski space into the 4-dimensional complex space with the metric signature (2,2). Penrose is well known for his 1974 discovery of Penrose tilings, which are formed from two tiles that can only tile the plane nonperiodically, and are the first tilings to exhibit fivefold rotational symmetry.

He later held visiting positions at Yeshiva, Princeton and Cornell during 1966-67 and 1969. In 1964, while a reader at Birkbeck College, London, (and having had his attention drawn from pure mathematics to astrophysics by the cosmologist Dennis Sciama, then at Cambridge) in the words of Kip Thorne of Caltech, "Roger Penrose revolutionised the mathematical tools that we use to analyse the properties of spacetime".

Another noteworthy contribution is his 1971 invention of spin networks, which later came to form the geometry of spacetime in loop quantum gravity.

To quote the citation from the London Mathematical Society: In 1971, he was awarded the Dannie Heineman Prize for Astrophysics.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1972.

This effect has come to be called the Terrell rotation or Penrose–Terrell rotation. In 1967, Penrose invented the twistor theory which maps geometric objects in Minkowski space into the 4-dimensional complex space with the metric signature (2,2). Penrose is well known for his 1974 discovery of Penrose tilings, which are formed from two tiles that can only tile the plane nonperiodically, and are the first tilings to exhibit fivefold rotational symmetry.

In 1975, Stephen Hawking and Penrose were jointly awarded the Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Also from 1979, dates Penrose's influential Weyl curvature hypothesis on the initial conditions of the observable part of the universe and the origin of the second law of thermodynamics.

He was influential in popularizing what are commonly known as Penrose diagrams (causal diagrams). In 1983, Penrose was invited to teach at Rice University in Houston, by the then provost Bill Gordon.

He worked there from 1983 to 1987. ==Later activity== In 2004, Penrose released A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, a 1,099-page comprehensive guide to the Laws of Physics that includes an explanation of his own theory.

In 1984, such patterns were observed in the arrangement of atoms in quasicrystals.

In 1985, he was awarded the Royal Society Royal Medal.

He worked there from 1983 to 1987. ==Later activity== In 2004, Penrose released A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, a 1,099-page comprehensive guide to the Laws of Physics that includes an explanation of his own theory.

He has received several prizes and awards, including the 1988 Wolf Prize in Physics, which he shared with Stephen Hawking for the Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems, and one half of the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity". ==Early life== Born in Colchester, Essex, Roger Penrose is a son of Margaret (Leathes) and psychiatrist and geneticist Lionel Penrose.

Along with Stephen Hawking, he was awarded the prestigious Wolf Foundation Prize for Physics in 1988.

In 1989, he was awarded the Dirac Medal and Prize of the British Institute of Physics.

In 1990, Penrose was awarded the Albert Einstein Medal for outstanding work related to the work of Albert Einstein by the Albert Einstein Society.

I don't believe in established religions of any kind." He regards himself as an agnostic. However, in the 1991 film A Brief History of Time, he also said, "I think I would say that the universe has a purpose, it's not somehow just there by chance … some people, I think, take the view that the universe is just there and it runs along—it's a bit like it just sort of computes, and we happen somehow by accident to find ourselves in this thing.

In 1991, he was awarded the Naylor Prize of the London Mathematical Society.

From 1992 to 1995, he served as President of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation. In 1994, Penrose was knighted for services to science.

This is what I see in Penrose's quest for a new basic principle of physics that will account for consciousness." Penrose responded to criticism of The Emperor's New Mind with his follow up 1994 book Shadows of the Mind, and in 1997 with The Large, the Small and the Human Mind.

From 1992 to 1995, he served as President of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation. In 1994, Penrose was knighted for services to science.

From 1992 to 1995, he served as President of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation. In 1994, Penrose was knighted for services to science.

This is what I see in Penrose's quest for a new basic principle of physics that will account for consciousness." Penrose responded to criticism of The Emperor's New Mind with his follow up 1994 book Shadows of the Mind, and in 1997 with The Large, the Small and the Human Mind.

In 1998, he was elected Foreign Associate of the United States National Academy of Sciences.

In 2000, he was appointed to the Order of Merit.

He worked there from 1983 to 1987. ==Later activity== In 2004, Penrose released A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, a 1,099-page comprehensive guide to the Laws of Physics that includes an explanation of his own theory.

In 2015 Penrose was awarded an honorary doctorate by CINVESTAV-IPN (Mexico). In 2004, he was awarded the De Morgan Medal for his wide and original contributions to mathematical physics.

In 2006, he also won the Dirac Medal given by the University of New South Wales.

Proceedings of EPAC 2006.

Published by Princeton University Press in 2007. ==See also== Illumination problem Quantum mind ==Notes== ==References== ==Further reading== Ferguson, Kitty (1991).

In 2008, Penrose was awarded the Copley Medal.

Published by Imperial College Press in 2008. Foreword to Fearful Symmetry by Anthony Zee's.

He mentions this evidence in the epilogue of his 2010 book Cycles of Time, a book in which he presents his reasons, to do with Einstein's field equations, the Weyl curvature C, and the Weyl curvature hypothesis (WCH), that the transition at the Big Bang could have been smooth enough for a previous universe to survive it.

He has three sons from a previous marriage to American Joan Isabel Penrose (née Wedge), whom he married in 1959. === Religious views === During an interview with BBC Radio 4 on 25 September 2010, Penrose stated, "I'm not a believer myself.

In 2011, Penrose was awarded the Fonseca Prize by the University of Santiago de Compostela. In 2012, Penrose was awarded the Richard R.

In 2011, Penrose was awarded the Fonseca Prize by the University of Santiago de Compostela. In 2012, Penrose was awarded the Richard R.

Published by World Scientific Publishing Co in December 2012. Foreword to Quantum Aspects of Life by Derek Abbott, Paul C.

Published by World Scientific Publishing Co in June 2013. Foreword to "A Computable Universe" by Hector Zenil.

A reviewed and updated version of the theory was published along with critical commentary and debate in the March 2014 issue of Physics of Life Reviews. ==Personal life== ===Family life=== Penrose is married to Vanessa Thomas, director of Academic Development at Cokethorpe School and former head of mathematics at Abingdon School, with whom he has one son.

In 2015 Penrose was awarded an honorary doctorate by CINVESTAV-IPN (Mexico). In 2004, he was awarded the De Morgan Medal for his wide and original contributions to mathematical physics.

Published by Springer in "The Frontiers Collection", 2018. Foreword to Beating the Odds: The Life and Times of E.

He has received several prizes and awards, including the 1988 Wolf Prize in Physics, which he shared with Stephen Hawking for the Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems, and one half of the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity". ==Early life== Born in Colchester, Essex, Roger Penrose is a son of Margaret (Leathes) and psychiatrist and geneticist Lionel Penrose.

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