The roots of the theory go back to the result of Émile Picard in 1879, showing that a non-constant complex-valued function which is analytic in the entire complex plane assumes all complex values save at most one.

in physics from the University of Helsinki, he studied at the Pulkovo Observatory with the German astronomer Herman Romberg, whose daughter, Margarete Henriette Louise Romberg, he married in 1892.

Otto and Margarete then settled in Joensuu, where Otto taught physics, and there their four children were born: Frithiof (born 1894; also a mathematician), Rolf (born 1895), Anna (born 1896) and Erik (born 1901). ==Education== Nevanlinna began his formal education at the age of 7.

Otto and Margarete then settled in Joensuu, where Otto taught physics, and there their four children were born: Frithiof (born 1894; also a mathematician), Rolf (born 1895), Anna (born 1896) and Erik (born 1901). ==Education== Nevanlinna began his formal education at the age of 7.

Otto and Margarete then settled in Joensuu, where Otto taught physics, and there their four children were born: Frithiof (born 1894; also a mathematician), Rolf (born 1895), Anna (born 1896) and Erik (born 1901). ==Education== Nevanlinna began his formal education at the age of 7.

He was then homeschooled before being sent to a grammar school in 1903 when the family moved to Helsinki, where his father took up a new post as a teacher at Helsinki High School.

He graduated in 1913 having performed very well, although he was not the top student of his year.

He then went beyond the school syllabus in the summer of 1913 when he read Ernst Leonard Lindelöf's Introduction to Higher Analysis; from that time on, Nevanlinna had an enthusiastic interest in mathematical analysis.

(Lindelöf was also a cousin of Nevanlinna's father, and so a part of the Neovius-Nevanlinna mathematical family.) Nevanlinna began his studies at the University of Helsinki in 1913, and received his Master of Philosophy in mathematics in 1917.

(Lindelöf was also a cousin of Nevanlinna's father, and so a part of the Neovius-Nevanlinna mathematical family.) Nevanlinna began his studies at the University of Helsinki in 1913, and received his Master of Philosophy in mathematics in 1917.

His brother, Frithiof, had received his doctorate in 1918 but likewise was unable to take up a post at a university, and instead began working as a mathematician for an insurance company.

In 1919, Nevanlinna presented his thesis, entitled Über beschränkte Funktionen die in gegebenen Punkten vorgeschriebene Werte annehmen ("On limited functions prescribed values at given points"), to Lindelöf, his doctoral advisor.

The thesis, which was on complex analysis, was of high quality and Nevanlinna was awarded his Doctor of Philosophy on 2 June 1919. ==Career== When Nevanlinna earned his doctorate in 1919, there were no university posts available so he became a school teacher.

In the early 1920s Rolf Nevanlinna, partly in collaboration with his brother Frithiof, extended the theory to cover meromorphic functions, i.e.

Frithiof recruited Rolf to the company, and Nevanlinna worked for the company and as a school teacher until he was appointed a Docent of Mathematics at the University of Helsinki in 1922.

Despite this heavy workload, it was between the years of 1922–25 that he developed what would become to be known as Nevanlinna theory. From 1947 Nevanlinna had a chair in the University of Zurich, which he held on a half-time basis after receiving in 1948 a permanent position as one of the 12 salaried Academicians in the newly created Academy of Finland. Rolf Nevanlinna's most important mathematical achievement is the value distribution theory of meromorphic functions.

The Second Main Theorem, more difficult than the first one, states roughly that there are relatively few values which the function assumes less often than average. Rolf Nevanlinna's article Zur Theorie der meromorphen Funktionen which contains the Main Theorems was published in 1925 in the journal Acta Mathematica.

During this time, he had been contacted by Edmund Landau and requested to move to Germany to work at the University of Göttingen, but did not accept. After his appointment as Docent of Mathematics, he gave up his insurance job but did not resign his position as school teacher until he received a newly created full professorship at the university in 1926.

His sympathy towards the Nazis led to his removal from his position as Rector of the University of Helsinki after Finland made peace with the Soviet Union in 1944. In the spring of 1941, Finland contributed a Volunteer Battalion to the Waffen-SS.

In 1942, a committee was established for the Volunteer Battalion to take care of the battalion's somewhat strained relations with its German commanders, and Nevanlinna was chosen to be the chairman of the committee, as he was a person respected in Germany but loyal to Finland.

His sympathy towards the Nazis led to his removal from his position as Rector of the University of Helsinki after Finland made peace with the Soviet Union in 1944. In the spring of 1941, Finland contributed a Volunteer Battalion to the Waffen-SS.

Despite this heavy workload, it was between the years of 1922–25 that he developed what would become to be known as Nevanlinna theory. From 1947 Nevanlinna had a chair in the University of Zurich, which he held on a half-time basis after receiving in 1948 a permanent position as one of the 12 salaried Academicians in the newly created Academy of Finland. Rolf Nevanlinna's most important mathematical achievement is the value distribution theory of meromorphic functions.

Despite this heavy workload, it was between the years of 1922–25 that he developed what would become to be known as Nevanlinna theory. From 1947 Nevanlinna had a chair in the University of Zurich, which he held on a half-time basis after receiving in 1948 a permanent position as one of the 12 salaried Academicians in the newly created Academy of Finland. Rolf Nevanlinna's most important mathematical achievement is the value distribution theory of meromorphic functions.

In recognition of his work he was awarded the Order of the Cross of Liberty, Second Class, and throughout his life he held this honour in especial esteem. Among Rolf Nevanlinna's later interests in mathematics were the theory of Riemann surfaces (the monograph Uniformisierung in 1953) and functional analysis (Absolute analysis in 1959, written in collaboration with his brother Frithiof).

In recognition of his work he was awarded the Order of the Cross of Liberty, Second Class, and throughout his life he held this honour in especial esteem. Among Rolf Nevanlinna's later interests in mathematics were the theory of Riemann surfaces (the monograph Uniformisierung in 1953) and functional analysis (Absolute analysis in 1959, written in collaboration with his brother Frithiof).

In 1965, Nevanlinna was an honorary guest at a function theory congress in Soviet Armenia. ==Nevanlinna Prize== When the IMU in 1981 decided to create a prize, similar to the Fields Medal, in theoretical computer science and the funding for the prize was secured from Finland, the Union decided to give Nevanlinna's name to the prize; the Rolf Nevanlinna Prize is awarded every four years at the ICM.

In 1965, Nevanlinna was an honorary guest at a function theory congress in Soviet Armenia. ==Nevanlinna Prize== When the IMU in 1981 decided to create a prize, similar to the Fields Medal, in theoretical computer science and the funding for the prize was secured from Finland, the Union decided to give Nevanlinna's name to the prize; the Rolf Nevanlinna Prize is awarded every four years at the ICM.

In 2018, the General Assembly of the IMU approved a resolution to remove Nevanlinna's name from the prize. ==See also== Nevanlinna theory Nevanlinna class (functions of bounded type) Nevanlinna function Nevanlinna–Pick interpolation Nevanlinna's criterion Nevanlinna Prize ==References== ==Sources== ==External links== Nevanlinna, Rolf.

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