It is one of the three earliest ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit ( 1500–500 BCE). Mycenaean Greek ( 1450 BCE) and Ancient Greek ( 750–400 BCE). Hittite ( 1750–1200 BCE). Other Indo-European languages distantly related to Sanskrit include archaic and Classical Latin ( 600 BCE–100 CE, Italic languages), Gothic (archaic Germanic language, c.


The oldest Sanskrit college is the Benares Sanskrit College founded in 1791 during East India Company rule.

In modern times, the first Sanskrit University was Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, established in 1791 in the Indian city of Varanasi.


The system most commonly used today is the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration), which has been the academic standard since 1888.


In India and beyond, its recitations include "simple private household readings, to family and neighborhood recitation sessions, to holy men reciting in temples or at pilgrimage places for passersby, to public Gita discourses held almost nightly at halls and auditoriums in every Indian city". === Literature and arts === More than 3,000 Sanskrit works have been composed since India's independence in 1947.


Louis Renou published in 1956, in French, a more extensive discussion of the similarities, the differences and the evolution of the Vedic Sanskrit within the Vedic period and then to the Classical Sanskrit along with his views on the history.


Much of this work has been judged of high quality, in comparison to both classical Sanskrit literature and modern literature in other Indian languages. The Sahitya Akademi has given an award for the best creative work in Sanskrit every year since 1967.


Sudharma, a daily printed newspaper in Sanskrit, has been published out of Mysore, India, since 1970.


Zoetmulder contains over 25,500 entries), and even in English. ===Media=== Since 1974, there has been a short daily news broadcast on state-run All India Radio.


The Indian guided missile program that was commenced in 1983 by the Defence Research and Development Organisation has named the five missiles (ballistic and others) that it developed Prithvi, Agni, Akash, Nag and the Trishul missile system.


The song "Cyber-raga" from Madonna's album Music includes Sanskrit chants, and Shanti/Ashtangi from her 1998 album Ray of Light, which won a Grammy, is the ashtanga vinyasa yoga chant.


The theme song of Battlestar Galactica 2004 is the Gayatri Mantra, taken from the Rigveda.


In 2009, Satya Vrat Shastri became the first Sanskrit author to win the Jnanpith Award, India's highest literary award. Sanskrit is used extensively in the Carnatic and Hindustani branches of classical music.

Since September 2009, US high school students have been able to receive credits as Independent Study or toward Foreign Language requirements by studying Sanskrit as part of the "SAFL: Samskritam as a Foreign Language" program coordinated by Samskrita Bharati.


In 2010, Uttarakhand became the first state in India to make Sanskrit its second official language.


In 2019, Himachal Pradesh made Sanskrit its second official language, becoming the second state in India to do so. == Phonology == Sanskrit shares many Proto-Indo-European phonological features, although it features a larger inventory of distinct phonemes.

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