Smiley

1900

It wasn't until the 1900s that the design evolved from a basic eye and mouth design, into a more recognisable design. The oldest known smiling face was found by a team of archaeologists led by Nicol├▓ Marchetti of the University of Bologna.

In a letter sent to publisher Ernst Bojesen in December 1900, he includes both a happy face and a sad face. One of the first commercial uses of a smiling face was in 1919, when the Buffalo Steam Roller Company in Buffalo, New York applied stickers on receipts with the word "thanks" and a smiling face above it.

This was one of the first instances that the smiling face had been adapted, with one of the twenty visible smileys pulling a face. In the United States, there were many instances of smiling faces in the 1900s.

1919

In a letter sent to publisher Ernst Bojesen in December 1900, he includes both a happy face and a sad face. One of the first commercial uses of a smiling face was in 1919, when the Buffalo Steam Roller Company in Buffalo, New York applied stickers on receipts with the word "thanks" and a smiling face above it.

1948

The face contained a lot of detail, having eyebrows, nose, teeth, chin and facial creases, reminiscent of "man-in-the-moon" style characteristics. Ingmar Bergman's 1948 film Port of Call includes a scene where the unhappy Berit draws a sad face closely resembling the modern "frowny", but including a dot for the nose in lipstick on her mirror, before being interrupted.

1950

Since the 1950s it has become part of popular culture worldwide, used either as a standalone ideogram, or as a form of communication, such as emoticons.

More elaborate designs in the 1950s emerged, with noses, eyebrows, and outlines.

They are loosely based on the ideograms designed in the 1960s and 70s, continuing with the yellow and black design. ==Terminology== Despite smiley ideographs dating back to the 1950s, the term smiley wasn't linked to the smiling yellow face until the 1970s.

1953

In 1953 and 1958, similar happy faces were used in promotional campaigns for the films Lili (1953) and Gigi (1958). ===The yellow and black happy face=== In the United States, the first time a combination of yellow and black was used for a smiling face was in late 1962.

1958

In 1953 and 1958, similar happy faces were used in promotional campaigns for the films Lili (1953) and Gigi (1958). ===The yellow and black happy face=== In the United States, the first time a combination of yellow and black was used for a smiling face was in late 1962.

1960

A yellow and black design was used was by the radio station, WMCA for its "Good Guys" campaign in the early 1960s.

More yellow and black designs appeared in the 1960s and 70s including works by Franklin Loufrani and Harvey Ross Ball.

They are loosely based on the ideograms designed in the 1960s and 70s, continuing with the yellow and black design. ==Terminology== Despite smiley ideographs dating back to the 1950s, the term smiley wasn't linked to the smiling yellow face until the 1970s.

During the 1960s and early 70s, a number of designers created smiling faces, which were categorized as "happy faces." The WMCA happy face became synonymous with 1960s culture in New York City.

Throughout the 1960s, thousands of these sweatshirts were given away.

Loufrani also points to a 1960 radio ad campaign that reportedly made use of a similar design. The rights to the Smiley trademark in one hundred countries are owned by the Smiley Company.

Beginning in the 1960s, a yellow happy face was used by numerous brands in print to demonstrate happiness. ===In print=== Franklin Loufrani use the word smiley when he designed a smiling face for the newspaper he was working for at the time.

1961

Early designs were often called "smiling face" or "happy face." This began in 1961 with WMCA's Good Guys, where they first incorporated a black smiley onto a yellow sweatshirt, and it was nicknamed the "happy face." The Spain brothers and Harvey Ross Ball both had designs in the 70s that concentrated more on slogans than the actual name of the smiley. When Ball's design was completed, it was not given an official name.

1962

In 1953 and 1958, similar happy faces were used in promotional campaigns for the films Lili (1953) and Gigi (1958). ===The yellow and black happy face=== In the United States, the first time a combination of yellow and black was used for a smiling face was in late 1962.

1963

In 1963, Ball was employed by State Mutual Life Assurance Company of Worcester, Massachusetts (now known as Hanover Insurance) to create a happy face to raise the morale of the employees.

The design is so simple that it is certain that similar versions were produced before 1963, including those cited above.

1967

In 1967, Seattle graphic artist George Tenagi drew his own version at the request of advertising agent, David Stern.

1970

Today, The Smiley Company holds many rights to the smiley ideogram and has become one of the biggest licensing companies globally. In the 1970s Loufrani trademarked the name and his design in France while he was working as a journalist for France Soir.

They are loosely based on the ideograms designed in the 1960s and 70s, continuing with the yellow and black design. ==Terminology== Despite smiley ideographs dating back to the 1950s, the term smiley wasn't linked to the smiling yellow face until the 1970s.

Stern, the man behind this campaign, also later incorporated the Happy Face in his run for Seattle mayor in 1993. The graphic was further popularized in the early 1970s by Philadelphia brothers Bernard and Murray Spain, who seized upon it in September 1970 in a campaign to sell novelty items.

However, the first industry to mass adopt the smiley was in comics and cartoons. The logo for and cover of the omnibus edition of the Watchmen comic book series is a smiley badge, worn by the character the Comedian, with blood splattered on it from the murder which initiates the events of the story. ===Music=== As music genres began to create their own cultures from the 1970s onwards, many cultures began to incorporate a smiling face into their culture.

In the late 1970s, the American band Dead Kennedys launched their first recording, "California ├╝ber alles".

In the UK, the happy face has been associated with psychedelic culture since Ubi Dwyer and the Windsor Free Festival in the 1970s and the electronic dance music culture, particularly with acid house, that emerged during the Second Summer of Love in the late 1980s.

1971

The Spain brothers used the slogan Have a nice day, which is now frequently known for the slogan rather than the naming of the smiley. The word smiley was used by Franklin Loufrani in France, when he registered his smiley design for trademark while working as a journalist for France Soir in 1971.

The Loufrani design came in 1971, when Loufrani designed a smiley face for the newspaper, France-Soir.

1972

Working with New York button manufacturer NG Slater, some 50 million happy face badges were produced by 1972. ===Evolution into the smiley=== In 1972, Frenchman Franklin Loufrani became the first person to legally trademark the use of a smiley face.

Mad magazine notably used the smiley a year later in 1972 across their entire front page for the April edition of the magazine.

1980

This began with Scott Fahlman in the 1980s when he first theorized ascii characters could be used to create faces and demonstrate emotion in text.

The first known mention on the Internet was on 19 September 1982, when Scott Fahlman from Carnegie Mellon University wrote: Yellow graphical smileys have been used for many different purposes, including use in early 1980s video games.

In the UK, the happy face has been associated with psychedelic culture since Ubi Dwyer and the Windsor Free Festival in the 1970s and the electronic dance music culture, particularly with acid house, that emerged during the Second Summer of Love in the late 1980s.

It was adopted during the growth of acid house across Europe and the UK in the late 1980s.

This sparked a movement where the smiley moved into various dance genres, becoming a symbol of 1980s dance music. ===Gaming=== In 1980, Namco released the now famous Pac-man, a yellow faced cartoon character.

1982

The first known mention on the Internet was on 19 September 1982, when Scott Fahlman from Carnegie Mellon University wrote: Yellow graphical smileys have been used for many different purposes, including use in early 1980s video games.

1993

Stern, the man behind this campaign, also later incorporated the Happy Face in his run for Seattle mayor in 1993. The graphic was further popularized in the early 1970s by Philadelphia brothers Bernard and Murray Spain, who seized upon it in September 1970 in a campaign to sell novelty items.

1996

In 1996 Loufrani's son Nicolas Loufrani took over the family business and built it into a multinational corporation.

1997

The first Smiley shop opened in London in the Boxpark shopping centre in December 2011. In 1997, Franklin Loufrani and Smiley World attempted to acquire trademark rights to the symbol (and even to the word "smiley" itself) in the United States.

1998

Yahoo! Messenger (from 1998) used smiley symbols in the user list next to each user, and also as an icon for the application. In 2001, SmileyWorld launched the website "The official Smiley dictionary", with smileys proposed to replace ASCII emoticons (i.e.

2001

Yahoo! Messenger (from 1998) used smiley symbols in the user list next to each user, and also as an icon for the application. In 2001, SmileyWorld launched the website "The official Smiley dictionary", with smileys proposed to replace ASCII emoticons (i.e.

In November 2001, and later, smiley emojis inside the actual chat text was adopted by several chat systems, including Yahoo Messenger. The smiley is the printable version of characters 1 and 2 of (black-and-white versions of) codepage 437 (1981) of the first IBM PC and all subsequent PC compatible computers.

The 2001 film Evolution has a three-eyed smiley for its logo.

2002

Wal-Mart responded first by trying to block Loufrani's application, then later by trying to register the smiley face itself; Loufrani, in turn, sued to stop Wal-Mart's application, and in 2002 after the issue went to court, where it would languish for seven years before a decision. Wal-Mart began phasing out the smiley face on its vests and its website in 2006.

2004

The first of his major works that included a smiley was his Flying Copper portrait, which was completed in 2004.

2005

He also used the smiley in 2005 to replace the face of the grim reaper.

2006

These are digital interpretations of the smiley ideogram and have since become the most commonly used set of emojis since they adopted by Unicode in 2006 onwards.

Wal-Mart responded first by trying to block Loufrani's application, then later by trying to register the smiley face itself; Loufrani, in turn, sued to stop Wal-Mart's application, and in 2002 after the issue went to court, where it would languish for seven years before a decision. Wal-Mart began phasing out the smiley face on its vests and its website in 2006.

2008

The District Court found in favor of the parodist when in March 2008, the judge concluded that Wal-Mart's smiley face logo was not shown to be "inherently distinctive" and that it "has failed to establish that the smiley face has acquired secondary meaning or that it is otherwise a protectable trademark" under U.S.

In 2008, the video game Bad Company used the yellow smiley as part of its branding for the game.

2010

law. In June 2010, Wal-Mart and the Smiley Company founded by Loufrani settled their 10-year-old dispute in front of the Chicago federal court.

2011

The first Smiley shop opened in London in the Boxpark shopping centre in December 2011. In 1997, Franklin Loufrani and Smiley World attempted to acquire trademark rights to the symbol (and even to the word "smiley" itself) in the United States.

2012

The Smiley Company is one of the 100 biggest licensing companies in the world, with a turnover of US$167 million in 2012.

The image became known as "grin reaper." ===Other uses=== During the London 2012 opening ceremony, early on in the show a number of giant yellow beach balls were released into the audience.

2016

In 2016, Wal-Mart brought back the smiley face on its website, social media profiles, and in selected stores. == Language and communication == The earliest known smiley-like image in a written document was drawn by a Slovak notary to indicate his satisfaction with the state of his town's municipal financial records in 1635.




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Page generated on 2021-08-05