, the only established medical therapy using stem cells is [stem cell transplantation], first performed in 1958 by French oncologist Georges Mathé.
In that same year, Siminovitch was a lead investigator for studies that found colony-forming cells were capable of self-renewal, which is a key defining property of stem cells that Till and McCulloch had theorized. The first therapy using stem cells was a bone marrow transplant performed by French oncologist Georges Mathé in 1958 on five workers at the Vinča Nuclear Institute in Yugoslavia who had been affected by a criticality accident.
Becker at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.
Pioneering works in theory of blood stem cell were conducted in the beginning of 20th century by Artur Pappenheim, Alexander Maximow, Ernst Neumann. The key properties of a stem cell were first defined by Ernest McCulloch and James Till at the University of Toronto in the early 1960s.
Their results were published in Nature in 1963.
The workers all survived. In 1981, embryonic stem (ES) cells were first isolated and successfully cultured using mouse blastocysts by British biologists Martin Evans and Matthew Kaufman.
Since 1998 however, it has been possible to culture and differentiate human embryonic stem cells (in stem-cell lines).
By 1998, embryonic stem cells were first isolated by American biologist James Thomson, which made it possible to have new transplantation methods or various cell types for testing new treatments.
In 2006, a Japanese team led by Shinya Yamanaka discovered a method to convert mature body cells back into stem cells.
In 2006, Shinya Yamanaka’s team in Kyoto, Japan converted fibroblasts into pluripotent stem cells by modifying the expression of only four genes.
WARF does not enforce these patents against academic scientists, but does enforce them against companies. In 2006, a request for the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to re-examine the three patents was filed by the Public Patent Foundation on behalf of its client, the non-profit patent-watchdog group Consumer Watchdog (formerly the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights).
In the re-examination process, which involves several rounds of discussion between the USPTO and the parties, the USPTO initially agreed with Consumer Watchdog and rejected all the claims in all three patents, however in response, WARF amended the claims of all three patents to make them more narrow, and in 2008 the USPTO found the amended claims in all three patents to be patentable.
The first human trial was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009.
However, the human trial was not initiated until October 13, 2010 in Atlanta for spinal cord injury research.
Consumer Watchdog appealed the granting of the '913 patent to the USPTO's Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (BPAI) which granted the appeal, and in 2010 the BPAI decided that the amended claims of the '913 patent were not patentable.
On November 14, 2011 the company conducting the trial (Geron Corporation) announced that it will discontinue further development of its stem cell programs.
However, WARF was able to re-open prosecution of the case and did so, amending the claims of the '913 patent again to make them more narrow, and in January 2013 the amended claims were allowed. In July 2013, Consumer Watchdog announced that it would appeal the decision to allow the claims of the '913 patent to the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC), the federal appeals court that hears patent cases.
"Physical Review X", 25 Febrer 2015, vol.
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