In 1724, he proposed a temperature scale which now (slightly adjusted) bears his name.


French entomologist René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur invented an alcohol thermometer and, temperature scale in 1730, that ultimately proved to be less reliable than Fahrenheit's mercury thermometer. The first physician to use thermometer measurements in clinical practice was Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738).


In 1742, Anders Celsius (1701–1744) proposed a scale with zero at the boiling point and 100 degrees at the freezing point of water, though the scale which now bears his name has them the other way around.


In 1866, Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt (1836–1925) invented a clinical thermometer that produced a body temperature reading in five minutes as opposed to twenty.


This is a fundamental character of temperature and thermometers. As it is customarily stated in textbooks, taken alone, the so-called "zeroth law of thermodynamics" fails to deliver this information, but the statement of the zeroth law of thermodynamics by James Serrin in 1977, though rather mathematically abstract, is more informative for thermometry: "Zeroth Law – There exists a topological line M which serves as a coordinate manifold of material behaviour.


The most recent official temperature scale is the International Temperature Scale of 1990.

(This is an example of a Frigorific mixture.) As body temperature varies, the Fahrenheit scale was later changed to use an upper fixed point of boiling water at . These have now been replaced by the defining points in the International Temperature Scale of 1990, though in practice the melting point of water is more commonly used than its triple point, the latter being more difficult to manage and thus restricted to critical standard measurement.

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