Effective treatment did not occur until the development and availability of antibiotics in the 1930s before which time herbs, bloodletting and rest were recommended. ==Pregnancy== Urinary tract infections are more concerning in pregnancy due to the increased risk of kidney infections.
Whether routine circumcision prevents UTIs has not been well studied as of 2011. ===Alternative medicine=== Some research suggests that cranberry (juice or capsules) may decrease the number of UTIs in those with frequent infections.
As of 2015, probiotics require further study to determine if they are beneficial.
The role of the urinary microbiome in maintaining urinary tract health is not well understood as of 2015. ==Treatment== The mainstay of treatment is antibiotics.
A Cochrane review concluded that the benefit, if it exists, is small; so did a randomized controlled trial in 2016.
A number of vaccines are in development as of 2018. ===Children=== The evidence that preventive antibiotics decrease urinary tract infections in children is poor.
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