The colonies of Carolina (founded in 1670), Pennsylvania (founded in 1681), and Georgia (founded in 1733) were the only three English colonies in America that were planned as utopian societies with an integrated physical, economic and social design.
every social organization relies on something that is not realized or feasible, but has the ideal that is somewhere beyond the horizon, a lighthouse to which it may seek to approach if it considers that ideal socially valid and generally accepted." In 1876, writer Charles Renouvier published a novel called Uchronia (French "Uchronie").
One classic example of such a utopia appears in Edward Bellamy's 1888 novel Looking Backward.
William Morris depicts another socialist utopia in his 1890 novel News from Nowhere, written partially in response to the top-down (bureaucratic) nature of Bellamy's utopia, which Morris criticized.
The opposite of a utopia is a dystopia, which dominates the fictional literature from the 1950s onwards, chiefly because of the impact of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949).
At the heart of the plan for Georgia was a concept of "agrarian equality" in which land was allocated equally and additional land acquisition through purchase or inheritance was prohibited; the plan was an early step toward the yeoman republic later envisioned by Thomas Jefferson. The communes of the 1960s in the United States often represented an attempt to greatly improve the way humans live together in communities.
Dick's The Man in the High Castle from 1962. ==Varieties== Chronologically, the first recorded Utopian proposal is Plato's Republic.
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